# Browsing Animations: winters-ncssm-2009

### 0000.iwp

A projectile is launched at an angle from a cliff. Velocity vectors are shown on the projectile. Determine the acceleration of the object. In order to check your answer, click Show Graph. Graphs of vertical and horizontal velocity and of vertical acceleration vs. time are shown.

### 030205.iwp

A disc with an arrow rotates at constant speed. Assume the grid units are 1 meter.

### 030206.iwp

A disc with an arrow rotates at constant speed. The radius of the disc is 1.0 m.

### 030205.iwp

A disc with an arrow rotates at constant speed. Assume the grid units are 1 meter.

### 030206.iwp

A disc with an arrow rotates at constant speed. The radius of the disc is 1.0 m.

### 0403-template.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level.

### 030206.iwp

A disc with an arrow rotates at constant speed. The radius of the disc is 1.0 m.

### 0403-template.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level.

### 040301.iwp

A cannonball is launched horizontally from a cannon on a cliff. What must the initial velocity be for the ball to hit the target?

### 0403-template.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level.

### 040301.iwp

A cannonball is launched horizontally from a cannon on a cliff. What must the initial velocity be for the ball to hit the target?

### 040302.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level at 45 degrees. What must the magnitude of the initial velocity be in order for the ball to hit the target?

### 040301.iwp

A cannonball is launched horizontally from a cannon on a cliff. What must the initial velocity be for the ball to hit the target?

### 040302.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level at 45 degrees. What must the magnitude of the initial velocity be in order for the ball to hit the target?

### 040303.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level. The angle of launch can be changed. For any target position, what values can the launch angle have in order for the ball to hit the target?

### 040302.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level at 45 degrees. What must the magnitude of the initial velocity be in order for the ball to hit the target?

### 040303.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level. The angle of launch can be changed. For any target position, what values can the launch angle have in order for the ball to hit the target?

### 040304.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level. The angle of launch can be changed. For any particular launch angle, how can you calculate the maximum height of the ball, the time to reach that height, and the maximum range of the ball?

### 040303.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level. The angle of launch can be changed. For any target position, what values can the launch angle have in order for the ball to hit the target?

### 040304.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level. The angle of launch can be changed. For any particular launch angle, how can you calculate the maximum height of the ball, the time to reach that height, and the maximum range of the ball?

### 040305.iwp

A cannonball is launched from a cannon on a cliff. What must the launch velocity be for the ball to hit the moving target? How does this depend on the launch angle?

### 040304.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level. The angle of launch can be changed. For any particular launch angle, how can you calculate the maximum height of the ball, the time to reach that height, and the maximum range of the ball?

### 040305.iwp

A cannonball is launched from a cannon on a cliff. What must the launch velocity be for the ball to hit the moving target? How does this depend on the launch angle?

### 040306.iwp

In this case, the target has an initial velocity of 0. What must the acceleration of the target be so that the ball hits the target?

### 040305.iwp

A cannonball is launched from a cannon on a cliff. What must the launch velocity be for the ball to hit the moving target? How does this depend on the launch angle?

### 040306.iwp

In this case, the target has an initial velocity of 0. What must the acceleration of the target be so that the ball hits the target?

### 040307.iwp

A cannonball is launched from a cannon on a cliff. What is the magnitude of the launch velocity?

### 040306.iwp

In this case, the target has an initial velocity of 0. What must the acceleration of the target be so that the ball hits the target?

### 040307.iwp

A cannonball is launched from a cannon on a cliff. What is the magnitude of the launch velocity?

### 040308.iwp

What is the angle of launch of the ball necessary to hit the falling target?

### 040307.iwp

A cannonball is launched from a cannon on a cliff. What is the magnitude of the launch velocity?

### 040308.iwp

What is the angle of launch of the ball necessary to hit the falling target?

### 040309.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level at 55 degrees above the horizontal and strikes a target. At what different angle of launch (but with the same magnitude of launch velocity) will the ball have the same range? In that case, will the ball hit the target, behind it, or in front of it?

### 040308.iwp

What is the angle of launch of the ball necessary to hit the falling target?

### 040309.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level at 55 degrees above the horizontal and strikes a target. At what different angle of launch (but with the same magnitude of launch velocity) will the ball have the same range? In that case, will the ball hit the target, behind it, or in front of it?

### 040310.iwp

What is the magnitude of the ball's initial velocity?

### 040309.iwp

A cannonball is launched from ground level at 55 degrees above the horizontal and strikes a target. At what different angle of launch (but with the same magnitude of launch velocity) will the ball have the same range? In that case, will the ball hit the target, behind it, or in front of it?

### 040310.iwp

What is the magnitude of the ball's initial velocity?

### 2-source-inter.iwp

This applet draws wavefront diagrams of waves from two sources.

### 040310.iwp

What is the magnitude of the ball's initial velocity?

### 2-source-inter.iwp

This applet draws wavefront diagrams of waves from two sources.

### 2-source-inter.iwp

This applet draws wavefront diagrams of waves from two sources.

### 2dforce-01a.iwp

The view is looking down on an air hockey table. A puck initially moving at constant velocity receives a momentary push in the +y direction at x = -2 as shown in each of the animations (selectable by numbers 1 to 4). Which animation correctly shows the motion of the puck after it is pushed?

### 2dforce-01a.iwp

The view is looking down on an air hockey table. A puck initially moving at constant velocity receives a momentary push in the +y direction at x = -2 as shown in each of the animations (selectable by numbers 1 to 4). Which animation correctly shows the motion of the puck after it is pushed?

### 2dforce-01b.iwp

A satellite moves at constant velocity when, at x = -2, its thrusters are suddenly engaged, producing a constant force perpendicular to its original motion. Which animation correctly depicts the satellite's motion after the thrusters are first engaged?

### 2dforce-01a.iwp

The view is looking down on an air hockey table. A puck initially moving at constant velocity receives a momentary push in the +y direction at x = -2 as shown in each of the animations (selectable by numbers 1 to 4). Which animation correctly shows the motion of the puck after it is pushed?

### 2dforce-01b.iwp

A satellite moves at constant velocity when, at x = -2, its thrusters are suddenly engaged, producing a constant force perpendicular to its original motion. Which animation correctly depicts the satellite's motion after the thrusters are first engaged?

### 2dforce-01b.iwp

A satellite moves at constant velocity when, at x = -2, its thrusters are suddenly engaged, producing a constant force perpendicular to its original motion. Which animation correctly depicts the satellite's motion after the thrusters are first engaged?

### Friction Template JC v4.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A perpendicular force holds the box in contact with the wall. What effects do the mass of the box, initial velocity, magnitude of the force, and coefficient of friction have on the box's motion?

### Friction Template JC v4.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A perpendicular force holds the box in contact with the wall. What effects do the mass of the box, initial velocity, magnitude of the force, and coefficient of friction have on the box's motion?

### Friction Template JC.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A perpendicular force holds the box in contact with the wall. What effects do the mass of the box, initial velocity, magnitude of the force, and coefficient of friction have on the box's motion?

### Friction Template JC v4.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A perpendicular force holds the box in contact with the wall. What effects do the mass of the box, initial velocity, magnitude of the force, and coefficient of friction have on the box's motion?

### Friction Template JC.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A perpendicular force holds the box in contact with the wall. What effects do the mass of the box, initial velocity, magnitude of the force, and coefficient of friction have on the box's motion?

### L00-1.iwp

A sonic ranger sends ultrasonic pulses at the rate of 10 per second toward a wall and receives the reflected pulses. The output of the ranger goes to a computer which calculates the distance between the ranger and the wall by using the following formula: distance from ranger to wall = (round trip time of pulse/2) / (speed of sound). The computer plots graphs of position vs. time and velocity vs. time from the output of the ranger. Sketch your predictions of what these graphs will look like.

### Friction Template JC.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A perpendicular force holds the box in contact with the wall. What effects do the mass of the box, initial velocity, magnitude of the force, and coefficient of friction have on the box's motion?

### L00-1.iwp

A sonic ranger sends ultrasonic pulses at the rate of 10 per second toward a wall and receives the reflected pulses. The output of the ranger goes to a computer which calculates the distance between the ranger and the wall by using the following formula: distance from ranger to wall = (round trip time of pulse/2) / (speed of sound). The computer plots graphs of position vs. time and velocity vs. time from the output of the ranger. Sketch your predictions of what these graphs will look like.

### L00-1b.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph. Which one of the two graphs displayed is velocity vs. time?

### L00-1.iwp

A sonic ranger sends ultrasonic pulses at the rate of 10 per second toward a wall and receives the reflected pulses. The output of the ranger goes to a computer which calculates the distance between the ranger and the wall by using the following formula: distance from ranger to wall = (round trip time of pulse/2) / (speed of sound). The computer plots graphs of position vs. time and velocity vs. time from the output of the ranger. Sketch your predictions of what these graphs will look like.

### L00-1b.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph. Which one of the two graphs displayed is velocity vs. time?

### L00-2.iwp

A car moves away from a sonic ranger at constant velocity. Sketch position vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs of the motion.

### L00-1b.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph. Which one of the two graphs displayed is velocity vs. time?

### L00-2.iwp

A car moves away from a sonic ranger at constant velocity. Sketch position vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs of the motion.

### L00-2b.iwp

A car and a wagon move away from a sonic ranger at constant but different velocities. Sketch the graphs of position vs. time and velocity vs. time for the two objects. Sketch both position graphs on the same set of axes for comparison. Repeat for the velocity graphs.

### L00-2.iwp

A car moves away from a sonic ranger at constant velocity. Sketch position vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs of the motion.

### L00-2b.iwp

A car and a wagon move away from a sonic ranger at constant but different velocities. Sketch the graphs of position vs. time and velocity vs. time for the two objects. Sketch both position graphs on the same set of axes for comparison. Repeat for the velocity graphs.

### L00-2c.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph. Which of the graphs represents the velocity of the car vs. time?

### L00-2b.iwp

A car and a wagon move away from a sonic ranger at constant but different velocities. Sketch the graphs of position vs. time and velocity vs. time for the two objects. Sketch both position graphs on the same set of axes for comparison. Repeat for the velocity graphs.

### L00-2c.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph. Which of the graphs represents the velocity of the car vs. time?

### L00-2d.iwp

Now check your predictions. Run the applet and click Show Graph. Which pair of graphs represents the motion of the car?

### L00-2c.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph. Which of the graphs represents the velocity of the car vs. time?

### L00-2d.iwp

Now check your predictions. Run the applet and click Show Graph. Which pair of graphs represents the motion of the car?

### L00-3.iwp

A car moves away from a sonic ranger at constant velocity and bounces off a wall. The velocity after the bounce is also constant but in the opposite direction. Predict the position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs of the car's motion.

### L00-2d.iwp

Now check your predictions. Run the applet and click Show Graph. Which pair of graphs represents the motion of the car?

### L00-3.iwp

A car moves away from a sonic ranger at constant velocity and bounces off a wall. The velocity after the bounce is also constant but in the opposite direction. Predict the position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs of the car's motion.

### L00-3b.iwp

Check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph. You can click on xVel and xAccel to display the corresponding graphs.

### L00-3.iwp

A car moves away from a sonic ranger at constant velocity and bounces off a wall. The velocity after the bounce is also constant but in the opposite direction. Predict the position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs of the car's motion.

### L00-3b.iwp

Check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph. You can click on xVel and xAccel to display the corresponding graphs.

### L00-4.iwp

Starting from rest, a car coasts frictionlessly down a hill with constantly-increasing velocity. Sketch position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs of the motion. Take the +x axis to point parallel to the hill as shown. The initial position of the car is 0.

### L00-3b.iwp

Check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph. You can click on xVel and xAccel to display the corresponding graphs.

### L00-4.iwp

Starting from rest, a car coasts frictionlessly down a hill with constantly-increasing velocity. Sketch position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs of the motion. Take the +x axis to point parallel to the hill as shown. The initial position of the car is 0.

### L00-4b.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph to display position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs for the motion down the plane.

### L00-4.iwp

Starting from rest, a car coasts frictionlessly down a hill with constantly-increasing velocity. Sketch position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs of the motion. Take the +x axis to point parallel to the hill as shown. The initial position of the car is 0.

### L00-4b.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph to display position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs for the motion down the plane.

### L00-5.iwp

After being given a push, a wagon moves up a hill, comes to a stop, and then descends. Sketch position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs of the motion. Assume that the positive x-axis points parallel to the hill as shown and that the initial position of the wagon is 0.

### L00-4b.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph to display position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs for the motion down the plane.

### L00-5.iwp

After being given a push, a wagon moves up a hill, comes to a stop, and then descends. Sketch position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs of the motion. Assume that the positive x-axis points parallel to the hill as shown and that the initial position of the wagon is 0.

### L00-5b.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph to display position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs for the motion.

### L00-5.iwp

After being given a push, a wagon moves up a hill, comes to a stop, and then descends. Sketch position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs of the motion. Assume that the positive x-axis points parallel to the hill as shown and that the initial position of the wagon is 0.

### L00-5b.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph to display position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs for the motion.

### L00-5b.iwp

Now check your predictions by running the applet and clicking on Show Graph to display position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs for the motion.

### aatest.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses an ideal gas enclosed in a box. The gauge to lower right indicates the absolute pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the gas volume are initially 0.0800 m x 0.0800 m x 0.280 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### aatest.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses an ideal gas enclosed in a box. The gauge to lower right indicates the absolute pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the gas volume are initially 0.0800 m x 0.0800 m x 0.280 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### absorption-01.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. Note that the photon is represented by an arrow.

### aatest.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses an ideal gas enclosed in a box. The gauge to lower right indicates the absolute pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the gas volume are initially 0.0800 m x 0.0800 m x 0.280 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### absorption-01.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. Note that the photon is represented by an arrow.

### acceleration01.iwp

Play the animation to view an object moving horizontally across the screen. Its acceleration is uniform. Step through the animation and take measurements of x-position and time to use for finding the acceleration. The object enters the field of view at -10.0 m and leaves (momentarily) at +10.0 m. Tic marks are placed every meter. Read positions of one side of the object to the nearest 0.1 m.

### absorption-01.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. Note that the photon is represented by an arrow.

### acceleration01.iwp

Play the animation to view an object moving horizontally across the screen. Its acceleration is uniform. Step through the animation and take measurements of x-position and time to use for finding the acceleration. The object enters the field of view at -10.0 m and leaves (momentarily) at +10.0 m. Tic marks are placed every meter. Read positions of one side of the object to the nearest 0.1 m.

### air-wedge-1.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. Play the animation to advance the position of the incident ray by the given increment. The effective path length is given as an output in units of wavelengths. All distance units are in micrometers (10^-6 m). 1. Change the height of the post to 0. Play the animation while watching the effective path length. Explain why the effective path length is always half a wavelength. 2. Now change the height of the post back to 50 µm. Determine the wavelength of the incident light to the nearest nanometer (0.001 µm). In order to precisely position the incident ray, change the angle of incidence to 0°. Then select an initial position near the one you're looking for and change the position increment to a small value.

### acceleration01.iwp

Play the animation to view an object moving horizontally across the screen. Its acceleration is uniform. Step through the animation and take measurements of x-position and time to use for finding the acceleration. The object enters the field of view at -10.0 m and leaves (momentarily) at +10.0 m. Tic marks are placed every meter. Read positions of one side of the object to the nearest 0.1 m.

### air-wedge-1.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. Play the animation to advance the position of the incident ray by the given increment. The effective path length is given as an output in units of wavelengths. All distance units are in micrometers (10^-6 m). 1. Change the height of the post to 0. Play the animation while watching the effective path length. Explain why the effective path length is always half a wavelength. 2. Now change the height of the post back to 50 µm. Determine the wavelength of the incident light to the nearest nanometer (0.001 µm). In order to precisely position the incident ray, change the angle of incidence to 0°. Then select an initial position near the one you're looking for and change the position increment to a small value.

### air-wedge-1a.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths in air. This is the total distance (in wavelengths) traveled by the ray between the glass plates plus 0.5 wavelength for the phase inversion upon reflection from the lower plate. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m). Refraction of the rays in the glass plates is not shown.

### air-wedge-1.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. Play the animation to advance the position of the incident ray by the given increment. The effective path length is given as an output in units of wavelengths. All distance units are in micrometers (10^-6 m). 1. Change the height of the post to 0. Play the animation while watching the effective path length. Explain why the effective path length is always half a wavelength. 2. Now change the height of the post back to 50 µm. Determine the wavelength of the incident light to the nearest nanometer (0.001 µm). In order to precisely position the incident ray, change the angle of incidence to 0°. Then select an initial position near the one you're looking for and change the position increment to a small value.

### air-wedge-1a.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths in air. This is the total distance (in wavelengths) traveled by the ray between the glass plates plus 0.5 wavelength for the phase inversion upon reflection from the lower plate. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m). Refraction of the rays in the glass plates is not shown.

### air-wedge-1b.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. Play the animation to advance the position of the incident ray. The phase difference is given as an output in units of wavelengths. All distance units are in micrometers (10^-6 m). Determine the wavelength of the incident light to the nearest nanometer (0.001 um). In order to precisely position the incident ray, change the angle of incidence to 0 deg.

### air-wedge-1a.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths in air. This is the total distance (in wavelengths) traveled by the ray between the glass plates plus 0.5 wavelength for the phase inversion upon reflection from the lower plate. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m). Refraction of the rays in the glass plates is not shown.

### air-wedge-1b.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. Play the animation to advance the position of the incident ray. The phase difference is given as an output in units of wavelengths. All distance units are in micrometers (10^-6 m). Determine the wavelength of the incident light to the nearest nanometer (0.001 um). In order to precisely position the incident ray, change the angle of incidence to 0 deg.

### air-wedge-3.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray by the given increment. The effective path length is given as an output in units of wavelengths. All distance units are in micrometers (10^-6 m). In order to precisely position the incident ray, select an initial position near the one you're looking for. Then select a small position increment. Setting the incident angle to 0° is also recommended. Determine the height of the post to the nearest 0.1 µm. Explain how you found your answer.

### air-wedge-1b.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. Play the animation to advance the position of the incident ray. The phase difference is given as an output in units of wavelengths. All distance units are in micrometers (10^-6 m). Determine the wavelength of the incident light to the nearest nanometer (0.001 um). In order to precisely position the incident ray, change the angle of incidence to 0 deg.

### air-wedge-3.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray by the given increment. The effective path length is given as an output in units of wavelengths. All distance units are in micrometers (10^-6 m). In order to precisely position the incident ray, select an initial position near the one you're looking for. Then select a small position increment. Setting the incident angle to 0° is also recommended. Determine the height of the post to the nearest 0.1 µm. Explain how you found your answer.

### air-wedge-3a.iwp

Light of the given wavelength is incident on an air wedge. Determine the height of the post. Greatest accuracy is achieved by changing the angle of incidence to 0 deg and positioning the incident ray at the position of the post (in order to maximize the effective path length).

### air-wedge-3.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray by the given increment. The effective path length is given as an output in units of wavelengths. All distance units are in micrometers (10^-6 m). In order to precisely position the incident ray, select an initial position near the one you're looking for. Then select a small position increment. Setting the incident angle to 0° is also recommended. Determine the height of the post to the nearest 0.1 µm. Explain how you found your answer.

### air-wedge-3a.iwp

Light of the given wavelength is incident on an air wedge. Determine the height of the post. Greatest accuracy is achieved by changing the angle of incidence to 0 deg and positioning the incident ray at the position of the post (in order to maximize the effective path length).

### air-wedge-template-2.iwp

This applet is flawed. Use template 3.

### air-wedge-3a.iwp

Light of the given wavelength is incident on an air wedge. Determine the height of the post. Greatest accuracy is achieved by changing the angle of incidence to 0 deg and positioning the incident ray at the position of the post (in order to maximize the effective path length).

### air-wedge-template-2.iwp

This applet is flawed. Use template 3.

### air-wedge-template-3.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths in air. This is the total distance (in wavelengths) traveled by the ray between the glass plates plus 0.5 wavelength for the phase inversion upon reflection from the lower plate. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m). Refraction of the rays in the glass plates is not shown.

### air-wedge-template-2.iwp

This applet is flawed. Use template 3.

### air-wedge-template-3.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths in air. This is the total distance (in wavelengths) traveled by the ray between the glass plates plus 0.5 wavelength for the phase inversion upon reflection from the lower plate. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m). Refraction of the rays in the glass plates is not shown.

### air-wedge-template-4.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths in air. This is the total distance (in wavelengths) traveled by the ray between the glass plates plus 0.5 wavelength for the phase inversion upon reflection from the lower plate. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m).

### air-wedge-template-3.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths in air. This is the total distance (in wavelengths) traveled by the ray between the glass plates plus 0.5 wavelength for the phase inversion upon reflection from the lower plate. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m). Refraction of the rays in the glass plates is not shown.

### air-wedge-template-4.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths in air. This is the total distance (in wavelengths) traveled by the ray between the glass plates plus 0.5 wavelength for the phase inversion upon reflection from the lower plate. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m).

### air-wedge-template-5.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident at Point a on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the positions of the rays. The effective path length (EPL) is given as an output. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m). Note to teacher: EPL (air+glass) is the difference in phase changes for paths bc and bdef. EPL (air) is the path length bde (in units of wavelengths) + 0.5 (for phase inversion at lower plate) EPL (book) is calculated according to the textbook's method. The length of the red line is doubled and added to 0.5 Disagreement between these values decreases as the angle of incidence decreases to 0 and the height of the post decreases to 0.

### air-wedge-template-4.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths in air. This is the total distance (in wavelengths) traveled by the ray between the glass plates plus 0.5 wavelength for the phase inversion upon reflection from the lower plate. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m).

### air-wedge-template-5.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident at Point a on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the positions of the rays. The effective path length (EPL) is given as an output. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m). Note to teacher: EPL (air+glass) is the difference in phase changes for paths bc and bdef. EPL (air) is the path length bde (in units of wavelengths) + 0.5 (for phase inversion at lower plate) EPL (book) is calculated according to the textbook's method. The length of the red line is doubled and added to 0.5 Disagreement between these values decreases as the angle of incidence decreases to 0 and the height of the post decreases to 0.

### air-wedge-template.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray in the given increments. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths. Refraction of the rays in the glass plates is not shown. All distance units are micrometers.

### air-wedge-template-5.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident at Point a on an air wedge composed of two glass slides. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the positions of the rays. The effective path length (EPL) is given as an output. The rays reflected from the lower surface of the upper plate and the upper surface of the lower plate interfere. The interference is constructive if the effective path length is an integral number of wavelengths and is destructive if the effective path length is an odd half-integral number of wavelengths. All distance units other than the effective path length are micrometers (10^-6 m). Note to teacher: EPL (air+glass) is the difference in phase changes for paths bc and bdef. EPL (air) is the path length bde (in units of wavelengths) + 0.5 (for phase inversion at lower plate) EPL (book) is calculated according to the textbook's method. The length of the red line is doubled and added to 0.5 Disagreement between these values decreases as the angle of incidence decreases to 0 and the height of the post decreases to 0.

### air-wedge-template.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray in the given increments. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths. Refraction of the rays in the glass plates is not shown. All distance units are micrometers.

### air-wedge-template.iwp

Monochromatic light is incident on an air wedge. The angle of the wedge may be changed by changing the height of the triangular post. Playing the animation advances the position of the incident ray in the given increments. The effective path length is given as an output in multiples of wavelengths. Refraction of the rays in the glass plates is not shown. All distance units are micrometers.

### apparent-depth-3.iwp

An observer at upper right views a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the observer's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the observer's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid unit. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter. Notes for instructor: Apparent rays are constructed on the assumption that the apparent distance to the right-hand side of the image is inversely proportional to the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays. (This takes the diameter of the object to be a constant. Basically, we're looking for the location at which the object in air would subtend an angle equal to the angle subtended by the refracted rays.) 1 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the left side of the object). 2 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the right side of the object). The X-intercept is the point where the ray incident from water refracts into air. These coordinates are determined using the principle of least time. The equation resulting from the application of the principle is a quartic, which is solved for the applicable real root. Notation: (xo,yo) = coordinates of observer (x1,y1) = coordinates of left side of object (x2,y1) = coordinates of right side of object (z,0) = coordinates of left ray at boundary (zd,0) = coordinates of right ray at boundary

### apparent-depth-3.iwp

An observer at upper right views a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the observer's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the observer's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid unit. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter. Notes for instructor: Apparent rays are constructed on the assumption that the apparent distance to the right-hand side of the image is inversely proportional to the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays. (This takes the diameter of the object to be a constant. Basically, we're looking for the location at which the object in air would subtend an angle equal to the angle subtended by the refracted rays.) 1 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the left side of the object). 2 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the right side of the object). The X-intercept is the point where the ray incident from water refracts into air. These coordinates are determined using the principle of least time. The equation resulting from the application of the principle is a quartic, which is solved for the applicable real root. Notation: (xo,yo) = coordinates of observer (x1,y1) = coordinates of left side of object (x2,y1) = coordinates of right side of object (z,0) = coordinates of left ray at boundary (zd,0) = coordinates of right ray at boundary

### apparent-depth-5.iwp

An alien on shore observes a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the alien's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the alien's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid units. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter. Notes for instructor: Apparent rays are constructed on the assumption that the apparent distance to the right-hand side of the image is inversely proportional to the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays. (This takes the diameter of the object to be a constant. Basically, we're looking for the location at which the object in air would subtend an angle equal to the angle subtended by the refracted rays.) 1 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the left side of the object). 2 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the right side of the object). The X-intercept is the point where the ray incident from water refracts into air. These coordinates are determined using the principle of least time. The equation resulting from the application of the principle is a quartic, which is solved for the applicable real root. Notation: (xo,yo) = coordinates of observer (x1,y1) = coordinates of left side of object (x2,y1) = coordinates of right side of object (z,0) = coordinates of left ray at boundary (zd,0) = coordinates of right ray at boundary

### apparent-depth-3.iwp

An observer at upper right views a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the observer's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the observer's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid unit. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter. Notes for instructor: Apparent rays are constructed on the assumption that the apparent distance to the right-hand side of the image is inversely proportional to the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays. (This takes the diameter of the object to be a constant. Basically, we're looking for the location at which the object in air would subtend an angle equal to the angle subtended by the refracted rays.) 1 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the left side of the object). 2 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the right side of the object). The X-intercept is the point where the ray incident from water refracts into air. These coordinates are determined using the principle of least time. The equation resulting from the application of the principle is a quartic, which is solved for the applicable real root. Notation: (xo,yo) = coordinates of observer (x1,y1) = coordinates of left side of object (x2,y1) = coordinates of right side of object (z,0) = coordinates of left ray at boundary (zd,0) = coordinates of right ray at boundary

### apparent-depth-5.iwp

An alien on shore observes a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the alien's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the alien's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid units. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter. Notes for instructor: Apparent rays are constructed on the assumption that the apparent distance to the right-hand side of the image is inversely proportional to the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays. (This takes the diameter of the object to be a constant. Basically, we're looking for the location at which the object in air would subtend an angle equal to the angle subtended by the refracted rays.) 1 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the left side of the object). 2 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the right side of the object). The X-intercept is the point where the ray incident from water refracts into air. These coordinates are determined using the principle of least time. The equation resulting from the application of the principle is a quartic, which is solved for the applicable real root. Notation: (xo,yo) = coordinates of observer (x1,y1) = coordinates of left side of object (x2,y1) = coordinates of right side of object (z,0) = coordinates of left ray at boundary (zd,0) = coordinates of right ray at boundary

### apparent-depth-6.iwp

An alien on shore observes a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the alien's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the alien's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid unit. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter.

### apparent-depth-5.iwp

An alien on shore observes a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the alien's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the alien's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid units. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter. Notes for instructor: Apparent rays are constructed on the assumption that the apparent distance to the right-hand side of the image is inversely proportional to the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays. (This takes the diameter of the object to be a constant. Basically, we're looking for the location at which the object in air would subtend an angle equal to the angle subtended by the refracted rays.) 1 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the left side of the object). 2 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the right side of the object). The X-intercept is the point where the ray incident from water refracts into air. These coordinates are determined using the principle of least time. The equation resulting from the application of the principle is a quartic, which is solved for the applicable real root. Notation: (xo,yo) = coordinates of observer (x1,y1) = coordinates of left side of object (x2,y1) = coordinates of right side of object (z,0) = coordinates of left ray at boundary (zd,0) = coordinates of right ray at boundary

### apparent-depth-6.iwp

An alien on shore observes a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the alien's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the alien's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid unit. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter.

### apparent-depth-template.iwp

An observer at upper right views a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the observer's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the observer's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid unit. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter. Notes for instructor: Apparent rays are constructed on the assumption that the apparent distance to the right-hand side of the image is inversely proportional to the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays. (This takes the diameter of the object to be a constant. Basically, we're looking for the location at which the object in air would subtend an angle equal to the angle subtended by the refracted rays.) 1 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the left side of the object). 2 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the right side of the object). The X-intercept is the point where the ray incident from water refracts into air. These coordinates are determined using the principle of least time. The equation resulting from the application of the principle is a quartic, which is solved for the applicable real root. Notation: (xo,yo) = coordinates of observer (x1,y1) = coordinates of left side of object (x2,y1) = coordinates of right side of object (z,0) = coordinates of left ray at boundary (zd,0) = coordinates of right ray at boundary

### apparent-depth-6.iwp

An alien on shore observes a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the alien's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the alien's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid unit. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter.

### apparent-depth-template.iwp

An observer at upper right views a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the observer's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the observer's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid unit. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter. Notes for instructor: Apparent rays are constructed on the assumption that the apparent distance to the right-hand side of the image is inversely proportional to the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays. (This takes the diameter of the object to be a constant. Basically, we're looking for the location at which the object in air would subtend an angle equal to the angle subtended by the refracted rays.) 1 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the left side of the object). 2 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the right side of the object). The X-intercept is the point where the ray incident from water refracts into air. These coordinates are determined using the principle of least time. The equation resulting from the application of the principle is a quartic, which is solved for the applicable real root. Notation: (xo,yo) = coordinates of observer (x1,y1) = coordinates of left side of object (x2,y1) = coordinates of right side of object (z,0) = coordinates of left ray at boundary (zd,0) = coordinates of right ray at boundary

### atwoods-01.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. The pulley is supported from above. When the blocks are released, the system of the two blocks accelerates. What is the acceleration of the system? Caution: Unphysical results will be obtained if blocks slide past the pulley.

### apparent-depth-template.iwp

An observer at upper right views a neutrally-buoyant object (orange) in the water. The angle subtended by the refracted rays at the observer's eye is shown in yellow. The apparent position of the object is shown in gray. The refracted rays from the observer's eye are extended backward into the water. Playing the animation will move the object the right. Unphysical behavior may be shown if the object moves too far to the right. The magnification is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays and the angle that would be subtended in the absence of water. A graph of magnification as a function of time can be displayed by clicking on Show graph. Each unit of time represents a horizontal displacement of 0.1 grid unit. Note that magnification is not the ratio of image to object size. It is, however, the ratio of the component of the image diameter perpendicular to the line of sight to the corresponding component of the object diameter. Notes for instructor: Apparent rays are constructed on the assumption that the apparent distance to the right-hand side of the image is inversely proportional to the angle subtended at the eye by the refracted rays. (This takes the diameter of the object to be a constant. Basically, we're looking for the location at which the object in air would subtend an angle equal to the angle subtended by the refracted rays.) 1 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the left side of the object). 2 refers to the rays (incident, refracted, apparent from the right side of the object). The X-intercept is the point where the ray incident from water refracts into air. These coordinates are determined using the principle of least time. The equation resulting from the application of the principle is a quartic, which is solved for the applicable real root. Notation: (xo,yo) = coordinates of observer (x1,y1) = coordinates of left side of object (x2,y1) = coordinates of right side of object (z,0) = coordinates of left ray at boundary (zd,0) = coordinates of right ray at boundary

### atwoods-01.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. The pulley is supported from above. When the blocks are released, the system of the two blocks accelerates. What is the acceleration of the system? Caution: Unphysical results will be obtained if blocks slide past the pulley.

### atwoods-02.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. The pulley is supported from above. When the blocks are released, the system of the two blocks accelerates. Caution: Unphysical results will be obtained if blocks slide past the pulley.

### atwoods-01.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. The pulley is supported from above. When the blocks are released, the system of the two blocks accelerates. What is the acceleration of the system? Caution: Unphysical results will be obtained if blocks slide past the pulley.

### atwoods-02.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. The pulley is supported from above. When the blocks are released, the system of the two blocks accelerates. Caution: Unphysical results will be obtained if blocks slide past the pulley.

### auto-impulse-1.iwp

A car and its unseatbelted crash test dummy accelerate toward an immovable wall. Click Show Graph to display a graph of the force on the car vs. time.

### atwoods-02.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. The pulley is supported from above. When the blocks are released, the system of the two blocks accelerates. Caution: Unphysical results will be obtained if blocks slide past the pulley.

### auto-impulse-1.iwp

A car and its unseatbelted crash test dummy accelerate toward an immovable wall. Click Show Graph to display a graph of the force on the car vs. time.

### auto-impulse-2.iwp

A car and its unseatbelted crash test dummy accelerates uniformly from rest toward an immovable wall. The car bounces off the wall and then decelerates uniformly to a stop. Click Show Graph to display a graph of the force on the car vs. time.

### auto-impulse-1.iwp

A car and its unseatbelted crash test dummy accelerate toward an immovable wall. Click Show Graph to display a graph of the force on the car vs. time.

### auto-impulse-2.iwp

A car and its unseatbelted crash test dummy accelerates uniformly from rest toward an immovable wall. The car bounces off the wall and then decelerates uniformly to a stop. Click Show Graph to display a graph of the force on the car vs. time.

### auto-impulse-3.iwp

A car and its unseatbelted crash test dummy accelerates uniformly from rest toward an immovable wall. The car bounces off the wall and then decelerates uniformly to a stop. Click Show Graph to display a graph of the velocity of the car vs. time.

### auto-impulse-2.iwp

A car and its unseatbelted crash test dummy accelerates uniformly from rest toward an immovable wall. The car bounces off the wall and then decelerates uniformly to a stop. Click Show Graph to display a graph of the force on the car vs. time.

### auto-impulse-3.iwp

A car and its unseatbelted crash test dummy accelerates uniformly from rest toward an immovable wall. The car bounces off the wall and then decelerates uniformly to a stop. Click Show Graph to display a graph of the velocity of the car vs. time.

### auto-impulse-compare.iwp

Two cars of equal mass and initial velocity to the right collide with a wall. One car is stopped in the collision and the other bounces off the wall with a velocity of smaller magnitude than it struck the wall. Which car experiences the greater average force of impact in the collision with the wall?

### auto-impulse-3.iwp

A car and its unseatbelted crash test dummy accelerates uniformly from rest toward an immovable wall. The car bounces off the wall and then decelerates uniformly to a stop. Click Show Graph to display a graph of the velocity of the car vs. time.

### auto-impulse-compare.iwp

Two cars of equal mass and initial velocity to the right collide with a wall. One car is stopped in the collision and the other bounces off the wall with a velocity of smaller magnitude than it struck the wall. Which car experiences the greater average force of impact in the collision with the wall?

### ball on string.iwp

A ball is swung in a vertical circle at constant speed on a string. The forces on the ball are shown as the ball moves.

### auto-impulse-compare.iwp

Two cars of equal mass and initial velocity to the right collide with a wall. One car is stopped in the collision and the other bounces off the wall with a velocity of smaller magnitude than it struck the wall. Which car experiences the greater average force of impact in the collision with the wall?

### ball on string.iwp

A ball is swung in a vertical circle at constant speed on a string. The forces on the ball are shown as the ball moves.

### ballcart01.iwp

A ball is projected vertically from a cart moving horizontally at constant velocity. Why does the ball land in the cart?

### ball on string.iwp

A ball is swung in a vertical circle at constant speed on a string. The forces on the ball are shown as the ball moves.

### ballcart01.iwp

A ball is projected vertically from a cart moving horizontally at constant velocity. Why does the ball land in the cart?

### ballcart02.iwp

A ball is projected vertically from a moving cart. Select parameters such that the ball will land in the cart.

### ballcart01.iwp

A ball is projected vertically from a cart moving horizontally at constant velocity. Why does the ball land in the cart?

### ballcart02.iwp

A ball is projected vertically from a moving cart. Select parameters such that the ball will land in the cart.

### ballcart04.iwp

A ball is projected vertically from a moving cart. Select parameters such that the ball will land in the cart. Velocity vectors are shown on the cart and the ball.

### ballcart02.iwp

A ball is projected vertically from a moving cart. Select parameters such that the ball will land in the cart.

### ballcart04.iwp

A ball is projected vertically from a moving cart. Select parameters such that the ball will land in the cart. Velocity vectors are shown on the cart and the ball.

### beats-02.iwp

Run the applet to view the waves. The blue and green waves are superimposed to produce the red wave. When the frequencies are nearly the same, beats are produced. The gray lines show the envelope of the beat. The horizontal axis represents time. To change the time scale, click the Window tab and change the value of X max. For finer time intervals and smoother plots, click the Time tab and change the Step time to a smaller value. When making changes under either the Window or Time tabs, be sure to click Apply. Then Reset the applet and Run.

### ballcart04.iwp

A ball is projected vertically from a moving cart. Select parameters such that the ball will land in the cart. Velocity vectors are shown on the cart and the ball.

### beats-02.iwp

Run the applet to view the waves. The blue and green waves are superimposed to produce the red wave. When the frequencies are nearly the same, beats are produced. The gray lines show the envelope of the beat. The horizontal axis represents time. To change the time scale, click the Window tab and change the value of X max. For finer time intervals and smoother plots, click the Time tab and change the Step time to a smaller value. When making changes under either the Window or Time tabs, be sure to click Apply. Then Reset the applet and Run.

### beats-grapher.iwp

Two waves of frequencies 10 and 12 Hz are sounded together.

### beats-02.iwp

Run the applet to view the waves. The blue and green waves are superimposed to produce the red wave. When the frequencies are nearly the same, beats are produced. The gray lines show the envelope of the beat. The horizontal axis represents time. To change the time scale, click the Window tab and change the value of X max. For finer time intervals and smoother plots, click the Time tab and change the Step time to a smaller value. When making changes under either the Window or Time tabs, be sure to click Apply. Then Reset the applet and Run.

### beats-grapher.iwp

Two waves of frequencies 10 and 12 Hz are sounded together.

### beats.iwp

Run the applet to view the waves. The blue and green waves are superimposed to produce the red wave. When the frequencies are nearly the same, beats are produced. Determine the frequencies of the green and blue waves. Also determine the beat frequency. Note that the x-axis is a time axis. In order to spread out the waves for easier viewing, click on the Window tab above and change the value of X Max to something smaller.

### beats-grapher.iwp

Two waves of frequencies 10 and 12 Hz are sounded together.

### beats.iwp

Run the applet to view the waves. The blue and green waves are superimposed to produce the red wave. When the frequencies are nearly the same, beats are produced. Determine the frequencies of the green and blue waves. Also determine the beat frequency. Note that the x-axis is a time axis. In order to spread out the waves for easier viewing, click on the Window tab above and change the value of X Max to something smaller.

### beats.iwp

Run the applet to view the waves. The blue and green waves are superimposed to produce the red wave. When the frequencies are nearly the same, beats are produced. Determine the frequencies of the green and blue waves. Also determine the beat frequency. Note that the x-axis is a time axis. In order to spread out the waves for easier viewing, click on the Window tab above and change the value of X Max to something smaller.

### bfield2.iwp

Thakker's Euler's B-field problem

### bfield2.iwp

Thakker's Euler's B-field problem

### bfield_2.iwp

Thakker's Euler's B-field problem

### bfield2.iwp

Thakker's Euler's B-field problem

### bfield_2.iwp

Thakker's Euler's B-field problem

### bfield_2.iwp

Thakker's Euler's B-field problem

### bppb2.iwp

The animation shows an object falling in a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C.

### bppb2.iwp

The animation shows an object falling in a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C.

### bppb3.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m.

### bppb2.iwp

The animation shows an object falling in a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C.

### bppb3.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m.

### bppb4.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m.

### bppb3.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m.

### bppb4.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m.

### bppb5.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m.

### bppb4.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m.

### bppb5.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m.

### bppb6.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m. The values of the inputs may be changed to generate different outputs.

### bppb5.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m.

### bppb6.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m. The values of the inputs may be changed to generate different outputs.

### bppb6.iwp

The animation shows a spherical object falling through a fluid with acceleration a = (k/m)v-g. The positive direction is up. The object has an intial position of 0 and is released from rest. The given inputs are for an iron ball of half a milimeter radius falling in glycerol at a temperature of 22 °C. The distance from the initial position of the ball to the bottom of the cylinder is 0.50 m. The values of the inputs may be changed to generate different outputs.

### capacitor-charge.iwp

A simple circuit contains a battery, resistor, capacitor, and switch in series. The switch is initially open and the capacitor is fully discharged. Run the applet to close the switch. The lines represent the potential differences across the battery (red), resistor (green), and capacitor (blue) as a function of time. The red, green, and blue bars provide another representation of how the potential differences change as a function of time. The sum of all three potential differences is 0 at any time as a result of conservation of energy.

### capacitor-charge.iwp

A simple circuit contains a battery, resistor, capacitor, and switch in series. The switch is initially open and the capacitor is fully discharged. Run the applet to close the switch. The lines represent the potential differences across the battery (red), resistor (green), and capacitor (blue) as a function of time. The red, green, and blue bars provide another representation of how the potential differences change as a function of time. The sum of all three potential differences is 0 at any time as a result of conservation of energy.

### capacitor-discharge.iwp

A simple circuit contains a resistor, capacitor, and switch in series. The switch is initially open and the capacitor is fully charged. Run the applet to close the switch. The lines represent the potential differences across the resistor (green) and capacitor (blue) as a function of time. The green and blue bars provide another representation of how the potential differences change as a function of time. The sum of the potential differences is 0 at any time as a result of conservation of energy.

### capacitor-charge.iwp

A simple circuit contains a battery, resistor, capacitor, and switch in series. The switch is initially open and the capacitor is fully discharged. Run the applet to close the switch. The lines represent the potential differences across the battery (red), resistor (green), and capacitor (blue) as a function of time. The red, green, and blue bars provide another representation of how the potential differences change as a function of time. The sum of all three potential differences is 0 at any time as a result of conservation of energy.

### capacitor-discharge.iwp

A simple circuit contains a resistor, capacitor, and switch in series. The switch is initially open and the capacitor is fully charged. Run the applet to close the switch. The lines represent the potential differences across the resistor (green) and capacitor (blue) as a function of time. The green and blue bars provide another representation of how the potential differences change as a function of time. The sum of the potential differences is 0 at any time as a result of conservation of energy.

### capacitor-discharge.iwp

A simple circuit contains a resistor, capacitor, and switch in series. The switch is initially open and the capacitor is fully charged. Run the applet to close the switch. The lines represent the potential differences across the resistor (green) and capacitor (blue) as a function of time. The green and blue bars provide another representation of how the potential differences change as a function of time. The sum of the potential differences is 0 at any time as a result of conservation of energy.

### clock-02.iwp

The minute and second hands of this clock move at the same rate as those of a normal clock.

### clock-02.iwp

The minute and second hands of this clock move at the same rate as those of a normal clock.

### clock-02.iwp

The minute and second hands of this clock move at the same rate as those of a normal clock.

### cockrelljIWPworkservice.iwp

A ball is launched horizontally off a cliff at the same time that a cart directly below the ball is pushed in the same direction. By adjusting the height of the cliff as well as the initial velocities of the ball and cart (if you need to), make the ball land in the cart.

### cockrelljIWPworkservice.iwp

A ball is launched horizontally off a cliff at the same time that a cart directly below the ball is pushed in the same direction. By adjusting the height of the cliff as well as the initial velocities of the ball and cart (if you need to), make the ball land in the cart.

### cockrelljIWPworkservice.iwp

A ball is launched horizontally off a cliff at the same time that a cart directly below the ball is pushed in the same direction. By adjusting the height of the cliff as well as the initial velocities of the ball and cart (if you need to), make the ball land in the cart.

### collision-01.iwp

Two objects collide and rebound from each other. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn to the same scale. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-01.iwp

Two objects collide and rebound from each other. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn to the same scale. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-02.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn to the same scale. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-01.iwp

Two objects collide and rebound from each other. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn to the same scale. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-02.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn to the same scale. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-02b.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together.

### collision-02.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn to the same scale. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-02b.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together.

### collision-03.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn to the same scale. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-02b.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together.

### collision-03.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn to the same scale. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-04.iwp

Two objects collide. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn relative to the magnitude of the momentum. The total kinetic energy of the system of two objects is represented by the orange bar. The coefficient of restitution may have values from 0 to 1. This parameter adjusts the degree of elasticity of the collision. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-03.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn to the same scale. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-04.iwp

Two objects collide. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn relative to the magnitude of the momentum. The total kinetic energy of the system of two objects is represented by the orange bar. The coefficient of restitution may have values from 0 to 1. This parameter adjusts the degree of elasticity of the collision. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-bullet-block-02.iwp

A bullet is fired horizontally at high speed toward a block of wood resting on a very long table. The bullet embeds in the wood. Kinetic friction between the table and the block brings the block to a stop. The distance that the block slides is given as an output. Determine the velocity of the bullet before the collision.

### collision-04.iwp

Two objects collide. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn relative to the magnitude of the momentum. The total kinetic energy of the system of two objects is represented by the orange bar. The coefficient of restitution may have values from 0 to 1. This parameter adjusts the degree of elasticity of the collision. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-bullet-block-02.iwp

A bullet is fired horizontally at high speed toward a block of wood resting on a very long table. The bullet embeds in the wood. Kinetic friction between the table and the block brings the block to a stop. The distance that the block slides is given as an output. Determine the velocity of the bullet before the collision.

### collision-bullet-block-03.iwp

A bullet is fired horizontally at high speed toward a block of wood resting on a table. The bullet is slowed through the block and exits on the opposite side. Kinetic friction between the table and the block brings the block to a stop. The distance that the block slides is given as an output. Determine the velocity of the bullet after passing through the block.

### collision-bullet-block-02.iwp

A bullet is fired horizontally at high speed toward a block of wood resting on a very long table. The bullet embeds in the wood. Kinetic friction between the table and the block brings the block to a stop. The distance that the block slides is given as an output. Determine the velocity of the bullet before the collision.

### collision-bullet-block-03.iwp

A bullet is fired horizontally at high speed toward a block of wood resting on a table. The bullet is slowed through the block and exits on the opposite side. Kinetic friction between the table and the block brings the block to a stop. The distance that the block slides is given as an output. Determine the velocity of the bullet after passing through the block.

### collision-elastic-2.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The red glider is initially stationary. The x-coordinate of the center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects and of the center of mass will be displayed as a function of time. Try collisions for different values of mass and initial velocity. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### collision-bullet-block-03.iwp

A bullet is fired horizontally at high speed toward a block of wood resting on a table. The bullet is slowed through the block and exits on the opposite side. Kinetic friction between the table and the block brings the block to a stop. The distance that the block slides is given as an output. Determine the velocity of the bullet after passing through the block.

### collision-elastic-2.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The red glider is initially stationary. The x-coordinate of the center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects and of the center of mass will be displayed as a function of time. Try collisions for different values of mass and initial velocity. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### collision-elastic-2a.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. The animation will stop at the beginning of the collision. If the animation were allowed to proceed, predict what the final velocities would be.

### collision-elastic-2.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The red glider is initially stationary. The x-coordinate of the center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects and of the center of mass will be displayed as a function of time. Try collisions for different values of mass and initial velocity. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### collision-elastic-2a.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. The animation will stop at the beginning of the collision. If the animation were allowed to proceed, predict what the final velocities would be.

### collision-elastic-2b.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. The animation will stop at the beginning of the collision. If the animation were allowed to proceed, predict what the final velocities would be.

### collision-elastic-2a.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. The animation will stop at the beginning of the collision. If the animation were allowed to proceed, predict what the final velocities would be.

### collision-elastic-2b.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. The animation will stop at the beginning of the collision. If the animation were allowed to proceed, predict what the final velocities would be.

### collision-elastic-2c.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. The animation will stop at the beginning of the collision. If the animation were allowed to proceed, predict what the final velocities would be.

### collision-elastic-2b.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. The animation will stop at the beginning of the collision. If the animation were allowed to proceed, predict what the final velocities would be.

### collision-elastic-2c.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. The animation will stop at the beginning of the collision. If the animation were allowed to proceed, predict what the final velocities would be.

### collision-elastic-2d-01.iwp

A green ball makes a glancing elastic collision with an initially stationary red ball. The balls have equal mass. The paths of the balls after the collision are perpendicular. The vectors shown represent momenta.

### collision-elastic-2c.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. The animation will stop at the beginning of the collision. If the animation were allowed to proceed, predict what the final velocities would be.

### collision-elastic-2d-01.iwp

A green ball makes a glancing elastic collision with an initially stationary red ball. The balls have equal mass. The paths of the balls after the collision are perpendicular. The vectors shown represent momenta.

### collision-elastic-2d-template.iwp

A green ball makes a glancing elastic collision with an initially stationary red ball. The balls have equal mass. The momentum vectors of the ball are shown.

### collision-elastic-2d-01.iwp

A green ball makes a glancing elastic collision with an initially stationary red ball. The balls have equal mass. The paths of the balls after the collision are perpendicular. The vectors shown represent momenta.

### collision-elastic-2d-template.iwp

A green ball makes a glancing elastic collision with an initially stationary red ball. The balls have equal mass. The momentum vectors of the ball are shown.

### collision-elastic-3.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The x-coordinate of the center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects and of the center of mass will be displayed as a function of time. Try collisions for different values of mass and initial velocity. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### collision-elastic-2d-template.iwp

A green ball makes a glancing elastic collision with an initially stationary red ball. The balls have equal mass. The momentum vectors of the ball are shown.

### collision-elastic-3.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The x-coordinate of the center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects and of the center of mass will be displayed as a function of time. Try collisions for different values of mass and initial velocity. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### collision-elastic-4.iwp

What is the total momentum of this system? Why can't you use the law of conservation of momentum to calculate what the velocities of both objects after the collision are? There is nevertheless a way to predict the final velocities. Examine the velocity vs. time graphs. Make changes to a mass or an initial velocity and run the collision. Examine the velocity vs. time graphs again. Continue making changes and examining the graphs. Look for a pattern that will allow you to predict the final velocities without running the animation.

### collision-elastic-3.iwp

Two gliders collide in an elastic collision. The x-coordinate of the center of mass of the system of gliders is shown as a black dot. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects and of the center of mass will be displayed as a function of time. Try collisions for different values of mass and initial velocity. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### collision-elastic-4.iwp

What is the total momentum of this system? Why can't you use the law of conservation of momentum to calculate what the velocities of both objects after the collision are? There is nevertheless a way to predict the final velocities. Examine the velocity vs. time graphs. Make changes to a mass or an initial velocity and run the collision. Examine the velocity vs. time graphs again. Continue making changes and examining the graphs. Look for a pattern that will allow you to predict the final velocities without running the animation.

### collision-elastic-4a.iwp

Determine the center of mass velocity for this elastic collision. Why is the center of mass velocity the same before and after the collision? Look at the velocity vs. time graphs. If you added a line for the center of mass velocity, what would it look like?

### collision-elastic-4.iwp

What is the total momentum of this system? Why can't you use the law of conservation of momentum to calculate what the velocities of both objects after the collision are? There is nevertheless a way to predict the final velocities. Examine the velocity vs. time graphs. Make changes to a mass or an initial velocity and run the collision. Examine the velocity vs. time graphs again. Continue making changes and examining the graphs. Look for a pattern that will allow you to predict the final velocities without running the animation.

### collision-elastic-4a.iwp

Determine the center of mass velocity for this elastic collision. Why is the center of mass velocity the same before and after the collision? Look at the velocity vs. time graphs. If you added a line for the center of mass velocity, what would it look like?

### collision-elastic-template-vectors.iwp

Two objects collide elastically. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The total momentum of the system of the two blocks is conserved.

### collision-elastic-4a.iwp

Determine the center of mass velocity for this elastic collision. Why is the center of mass velocity the same before and after the collision? Look at the velocity vs. time graphs. If you added a line for the center of mass velocity, what would it look like?

### collision-elastic-template-vectors.iwp

Two objects collide elastically. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The total momentum of the system of the two blocks is conserved.

### collision-elastic-template.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension

### collision-elastic-template-vectors.iwp

Two objects collide elastically. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The total momentum of the system of the two blocks is conserved.

### collision-elastic-template.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension

### collision-explosion-01.iwp

Two objects are initially at rest. A small explosive charge forces them quickly apart.

### collision-elastic-template.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension

### collision-explosion-01.iwp

Two objects are initially at rest. A small explosive charge forces them quickly apart.

### collision-explosion-02.iwp

Two objects are initially at rest. A spring-loaded plunger attached to the red block is quickly released, and the blocks push each other apart.

### collision-explosion-01.iwp

Two objects are initially at rest. A small explosive charge forces them quickly apart.

### collision-explosion-02.iwp

Two objects are initially at rest. A spring-loaded plunger attached to the red block is quickly released, and the blocks push each other apart.

### collision-explosion-02b.iwp

Two objects are initially at rest. A spring-loaded plunger attached to the red block is quickly released, and the blocks push each other apart.

### collision-explosion-02.iwp

Two objects are initially at rest. A spring-loaded plunger attached to the red block is quickly released, and the blocks push each other apart.

### collision-explosion-02b.iwp

Two objects are initially at rest. A spring-loaded plunger attached to the red block is quickly released, and the blocks push each other apart.

### collision-explosion.iwp

An explosion is an interaction where the objects are initially at rest but move apart after the collision. Total momentum is also conserved in this situation. Create an explosion. Try different values for the Forcefulness of the explosion. Record a table with columns for the Forcefulness, the final velocity of Blue, and the final velocity of Red. Examine your results for a pattern in the ratio of the final velocities. How can you use conservation of momentum to explain this pattern?

### collision-explosion-02b.iwp

Two objects are initially at rest. A spring-loaded plunger attached to the red block is quickly released, and the blocks push each other apart.

### collision-explosion.iwp

An explosion is an interaction where the objects are initially at rest but move apart after the collision. Total momentum is also conserved in this situation. Create an explosion. Try different values for the Forcefulness of the explosion. Record a table with columns for the Forcefulness, the final velocity of Blue, and the final velocity of Red. Examine your results for a pattern in the ratio of the final velocities. How can you use conservation of momentum to explain this pattern?

### collision-inelastic-01a.iwp

Answer these questions using the animation. The grid spacing in meters is given in the upper right, and the elapsed time and masses of the objects are given under Outputs. 1. What is the velocity before collision of the blue block? 2. What is the velocity after collision of the combined blocks? 3. What is the product of mass and velocity of the blue block before collision? (This is called the initial momentum of the blue block.) 4. What is the product of mass and velocity of the combined blocks after collision? (This is called the final momentum of the combined blocks.) 5. How do your answers to 3 and 4 compare? 6. On one set of axes, sketch velocity vs. time graphs for the red and blue blocks from t = 0 to 5 s. Use a different color for the lines for the two blocks.

### collision-explosion.iwp

An explosion is an interaction where the objects are initially at rest but move apart after the collision. Total momentum is also conserved in this situation. Create an explosion. Try different values for the Forcefulness of the explosion. Record a table with columns for the Forcefulness, the final velocity of Blue, and the final velocity of Red. Examine your results for a pattern in the ratio of the final velocities. How can you use conservation of momentum to explain this pattern?

### collision-inelastic-01a.iwp

Answer these questions using the animation. The grid spacing in meters is given in the upper right, and the elapsed time and masses of the objects are given under Outputs. 1. What is the velocity before collision of the blue block? 2. What is the velocity after collision of the combined blocks? 3. What is the product of mass and velocity of the blue block before collision? (This is called the initial momentum of the blue block.) 4. What is the product of mass and velocity of the combined blocks after collision? (This is called the final momentum of the combined blocks.) 5. How do your answers to 3 and 4 compare? 6. On one set of axes, sketch velocity vs. time graphs for the red and blue blocks from t = 0 to 5 s. Use a different color for the lines for the two blocks.

### collision-inelastic-01b.iwp

Check your answers. Velocities and momenta are given under inputs and outputs. Click on Show Graph for velocity vs. time graphs.

### collision-inelastic-01a.iwp

Answer these questions using the animation. The grid spacing in meters is given in the upper right, and the elapsed time and masses of the objects are given under Outputs. 1. What is the velocity before collision of the blue block? 2. What is the velocity after collision of the combined blocks? 3. What is the product of mass and velocity of the blue block before collision? (This is called the initial momentum of the blue block.) 4. What is the product of mass and velocity of the combined blocks after collision? (This is called the final momentum of the combined blocks.) 5. How do your answers to 3 and 4 compare? 6. On one set of axes, sketch velocity vs. time graphs for the red and blue blocks from t = 0 to 5 s. Use a different color for the lines for the two blocks.

### collision-inelastic-01b.iwp

Check your answers. Velocities and momenta are given under inputs and outputs. Click on Show Graph for velocity vs. time graphs.

### collision-inelastic-01c.iwp

Assume that momentum is conserved in the collision of these two blocks. Use the applet to measure the velocity of the blue block before collision and both blocks after collision. Then sketch velocity vs. time graphs for the blue and red blocks before collision and the combined blocks after collision.

### collision-inelastic-01b.iwp

Check your answers. Velocities and momenta are given under inputs and outputs. Click on Show Graph for velocity vs. time graphs.

### collision-inelastic-01c.iwp

Assume that momentum is conserved in the collision of these two blocks. Use the applet to measure the velocity of the blue block before collision and both blocks after collision. Then sketch velocity vs. time graphs for the blue and red blocks before collision and the combined blocks after collision.

### collision-inelastic-02a.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The animation stops as the collision starts. You are to predict the velocity after collision of the combined blocks. Use the fact that the total momentum is conserved. This means that the sum of the momenta of the blocks before the collision is equal to the sum of the momenta after the collision. Also sketch the velocity vs. time graph for the objects as you did in the previous problem.

### collision-inelastic-01c.iwp

Assume that momentum is conserved in the collision of these two blocks. Use the applet to measure the velocity of the blue block before collision and both blocks after collision. Then sketch velocity vs. time graphs for the blue and red blocks before collision and the combined blocks after collision.

### collision-inelastic-02a.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The animation stops as the collision starts. You are to predict the velocity after collision of the combined blocks. Use the fact that the total momentum is conserved. This means that the sum of the momenta of the blocks before the collision is equal to the sum of the momenta after the collision. Also sketch the velocity vs. time graph for the objects as you did in the previous problem.

### collision-inelastic-02b.iwp

Check your answers. Velocities and momenta are given under inputs and outputs. Click on Show Graph for velocity vs. time graphs.

### collision-inelastic-02a.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The animation stops as the collision starts. You are to predict the velocity after collision of the combined blocks. Use the fact that the total momentum is conserved. This means that the sum of the momenta of the blocks before the collision is equal to the sum of the momenta after the collision. Also sketch the velocity vs. time graph for the objects as you did in the previous problem.

### collision-inelastic-02b.iwp

Check your answers. Velocities and momenta are given under inputs and outputs. Click on Show Graph for velocity vs. time graphs.

### collision-inelastic-03a.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The animation stops as the collision starts. Use conservation of momentum to predict the velocity after collision of the combined blocks. Also sketch the velocity vs. time graph for the objects.

### collision-inelastic-02b.iwp

Check your answers. Velocities and momenta are given under inputs and outputs. Click on Show Graph for velocity vs. time graphs.

### collision-inelastic-03a.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The animation stops as the collision starts. Use conservation of momentum to predict the velocity after collision of the combined blocks. Also sketch the velocity vs. time graph for the objects.

### collision-inelastic-03a.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. The animation stops as the collision starts. Use conservation of momentum to predict the velocity after collision of the combined blocks. Also sketch the velocity vs. time graph for the objects.

### collision-inelastic-04a.iwp

One object moving left collides with another moving right. They stick together in the collision. The animation stops as the collision starts. Use conservation of momentum to predict the velocity after collision of the combined blocks. Momentum is a vector, so you have to take into account the direction of the velocity. Also sketch the velocity vs. time graph for the objects.

### collision-inelastic-04a.iwp

One object moving left collides with another moving right. They stick together in the collision. The animation stops as the collision starts. Use conservation of momentum to predict the velocity after collision of the combined blocks. Momentum is a vector, so you have to take into account the direction of the velocity. Also sketch the velocity vs. time graph for the objects.

### collision-inelastic-04a.iwp

One object moving left collides with another moving right. They stick together in the collision. The animation stops as the collision starts. Use conservation of momentum to predict the velocity after collision of the combined blocks. Momentum is a vector, so you have to take into account the direction of the velocity. Also sketch the velocity vs. time graph for the objects.

### collision-inelastic-05.iwp

Create a collision where the combined blocks move to the left after the collision. You can change masses and initial velocities. After changing the inputs, click the Reset button before playing.

### collision-inelastic-05.iwp

Create a collision where the combined blocks move to the left after the collision. You can change masses and initial velocities. After changing the inputs, click the Reset button before playing.

### collision-inelastic-06.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. Determine the ratio of the masses of the blocks.

### collision-inelastic-05.iwp

Create a collision where the combined blocks move to the left after the collision. You can change masses and initial velocities. After changing the inputs, click the Reset button before playing.

### collision-inelastic-06.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. Determine the ratio of the masses of the blocks.

### collision-inelastic-2d-01.iwp

UNC and NCSU football players undergo a compeletely inelastic collision in 2 dimensions. The vectors represent the initial and final momenta. Verify by doing a conservation of momentum problem that the magnitude and direction of the final velocity of the players is correct as given under Outputs. Of course, friction would bring the players to a stop much quicker than is shown here.

### collision-inelastic-06.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together. Determine the ratio of the masses of the blocks.

### collision-inelastic-2d-01.iwp

UNC and NCSU football players undergo a compeletely inelastic collision in 2 dimensions. The vectors represent the initial and final momenta. Verify by doing a conservation of momentum problem that the magnitude and direction of the final velocity of the players is correct as given under Outputs. Of course, friction would bring the players to a stop much quicker than is shown here.

### collision-inelastic-2d-02.iwp

UNC and NCSU football players undergo a compeletely inelastic collision in 2 dimensions. The vectors represent the initial and final momenta. Determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the combined players. Of course, friction would bring the players to a stop much quicker than is shown here. You may wish to select your favorite team.

### collision-inelastic-2d-01.iwp

UNC and NCSU football players undergo a compeletely inelastic collision in 2 dimensions. The vectors represent the initial and final momenta. Verify by doing a conservation of momentum problem that the magnitude and direction of the final velocity of the players is correct as given under Outputs. Of course, friction would bring the players to a stop much quicker than is shown here.

### collision-inelastic-2d-02.iwp

UNC and NCSU football players undergo a compeletely inelastic collision in 2 dimensions. The vectors represent the initial and final momenta. Determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the combined players. Of course, friction would bring the players to a stop much quicker than is shown here. You may wish to select your favorite team.

### collision-inelastic-2d-template.iwp

UNC and NCSU football players undergo a compeletely inelastic collision in 2 dimensions. The vectors represent the initial and final momenta.

### collision-inelastic-2d-02.iwp

UNC and NCSU football players undergo a compeletely inelastic collision in 2 dimensions. The vectors represent the initial and final momenta. Determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the combined players. Of course, friction would bring the players to a stop much quicker than is shown here. You may wish to select your favorite team.

### collision-inelastic-2d-template.iwp

UNC and NCSU football players undergo a compeletely inelastic collision in 2 dimensions. The vectors represent the initial and final momenta.

### collision-inelastic-template.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together.

### collision-inelastic-2d-template.iwp

UNC and NCSU football players undergo a compeletely inelastic collision in 2 dimensions. The vectors represent the initial and final momenta.

### collision-inelastic-template.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together.

### collision-inelastic.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension Bug: If the initial velocities are equal, the objects will disappear. But then, you wouldn't have a collision, would you?

### collision-inelastic-template.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together.

### collision-inelastic.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension Bug: If the initial velocities are equal, the objects will disappear. But then, you wouldn't have a collision, would you?

### collision-inelastic2d-template.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together.

### collision-inelastic.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension Bug: If the initial velocities are equal, the objects will disappear. But then, you wouldn't have a collision, would you?

### collision-inelastic2d-template.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together.

### collision-passthru-01.iwp

A bullet is fired horizontally at a block of wood and passes through it.

### collision-inelastic2d-template.iwp

Two objects collide and stick together.

### collision-passthru-01.iwp

A bullet is fired horizontally at a block of wood and passes through it.

### collision-passthru-01.iwp

A bullet is fired horizontally at a block of wood and passes through it.

### collision-symmetric.iwp

Two gliders of equal mass collide in an elastic collision. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects will be displayed as a function of time. Try collisions for different pairs of initial velocities. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### collision-symmetric.iwp

Two gliders of equal mass collide in an elastic collision. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects will be displayed as a function of time. Try collisions for different pairs of initial velocities. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### collision-template.iwp

Two objects collide and rebound from each other. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn relative to the magnitude of the momentum. If the vectors extend off the screen, the vector magnification can be decreased. The center of mass of the system is displayed as a green dot. Velocities are displayed in the graph. The coefficient of restitution may be selected. The kinetic energy is represented by the orange bar. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision-symmetric.iwp

Two gliders of equal mass collide in an elastic collision. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects will be displayed as a function of time. Try collisions for different pairs of initial velocities. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### collision-template.iwp

Two objects collide and rebound from each other. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn relative to the magnitude of the momentum. If the vectors extend off the screen, the vector magnification can be decreased. The center of mass of the system is displayed as a green dot. Velocities are displayed in the graph. The coefficient of restitution may be selected. The kinetic energy is represented by the orange bar. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision2.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension Bug: If the initial velocities are equal, the objects will disappear. But then, you wouldn't have a collision, would you?

### collision-template.iwp

Two objects collide and rebound from each other. The momentum vector of each object as well as the sum of the momentum vectors is displayed. The lengths of the vectors are drawn relative to the magnitude of the momentum. If the vectors extend off the screen, the vector magnification can be decreased. The center of mass of the system is displayed as a green dot. Velocities are displayed in the graph. The coefficient of restitution may be selected. The kinetic energy is represented by the orange bar. Unphysical results may be obtained for combinations of initial velocities for which the objects cannot collide.

### collision2.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension Bug: If the initial velocities are equal, the objects will disappear. But then, you wouldn't have a collision, would you?

### collision2brian.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension Bug: If the initial velocities are equal, the objects will disappear. But then, you wouldn't have a collision, would you?

### collision2.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension Bug: If the initial velocities are equal, the objects will disappear. But then, you wouldn't have a collision, would you?

### collision2brian.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension Bug: If the initial velocities are equal, the objects will disappear. But then, you wouldn't have a collision, would you?

### collision2d-wall-02.iwp

A ball bounces off a wall. The components of the momentum vector of the ball are shown.

### collision2brian.iwp

Elastic collision in one dimension Bug: If the initial velocities are equal, the objects will disappear. But then, you wouldn't have a collision, would you?

### collision2d-wall-02.iwp

A ball bounces off a wall. The components of the momentum vector of the ball are shown.

### collision2d-wall.iwp

A ball bounces elastically off the right-side of the Animator window.

### collision2d-wall-02.iwp

A ball bounces off a wall. The components of the momentum vector of the ball are shown.

### collision2d-wall.iwp

A ball bounces elastically off the right-side of the Animator window.

### compton-01.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. Note that the photon is repesented by an arrow.

### collision2d-wall.iwp

A ball bounces elastically off the right-side of the Animator window.

### compton-01.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. Note that the photon is repesented by an arrow.

### compton-01b.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered at 180 degrees by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon is repesented by an arrow. Determine the wavelength of the scattered photon and the momentum and energy of the electron.

### compton-01.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. Note that the photon is repesented by an arrow.

### compton-01b.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered at 180 degrees by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon is repesented by an arrow. Determine the wavelength of the scattered photon and the momentum and energy of the electron.

### compton-01c.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered at by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon is repesented by an arrow. Determine the wavelength of the scattered photon, the kinetic energy of the electron, and the angle that the path of the electron makes with the x-axis.

### compton-01b.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered at 180 degrees by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon is repesented by an arrow. Determine the wavelength of the scattered photon and the momentum and energy of the electron.

### compton-01c.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered at by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon is repesented by an arrow. Determine the wavelength of the scattered photon, the kinetic energy of the electron, and the angle that the path of the electron makes with the x-axis.

### compton-02.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon is repesented by an arrow.

### compton-01c.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered at by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon is repesented by an arrow. Determine the wavelength of the scattered photon, the kinetic energy of the electron, and the angle that the path of the electron makes with the x-axis.

### compton-02.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon is repesented by an arrow.

### compton-03.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon, which is represented by an arrow is scattered backward along its original path.

### compton-02.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon is repesented by an arrow.

### compton-03.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon, which is represented by an arrow is scattered backward along its original path.

### compton-04.iwp

A light wave initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. While the electron appears to be moving very slowly after the collision, this must be considered in relation to the distance and time scales. The grid size for distance is 1E-10 meter. The time step is 4E-20 second. Hence, the electron is actually moving quite fast. The wavelength of the light is increased by the collision, since the light gives energy to the electron. However, the amount of the wavelength shift is so small that it's not obvious on the animation.

### compton-03.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The photon, which is represented by an arrow is scattered backward along its original path.

### compton-04.iwp

A light wave initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. While the electron appears to be moving very slowly after the collision, this must be considered in relation to the distance and time scales. The grid size for distance is 1E-10 meter. The time step is 4E-20 second. Hence, the electron is actually moving quite fast. The wavelength of the light is increased by the collision, since the light gives energy to the electron. However, the amount of the wavelength shift is so small that it's not obvious on the animation.

### compton-wave-b.iwp

A light wave initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The relative speeds of the light and the electron are physically accurate.

### compton-04.iwp

A light wave initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. While the electron appears to be moving very slowly after the collision, this must be considered in relation to the distance and time scales. The grid size for distance is 1E-10 meter. The time step is 4E-20 second. Hence, the electron is actually moving quite fast. The wavelength of the light is increased by the collision, since the light gives energy to the electron. However, the amount of the wavelength shift is so small that it's not obvious on the animation.

### compton-wave-b.iwp

A light wave initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The relative speeds of the light and the electron are physically accurate.

### compton-wave.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. Note that the photon is repesented by an arrow.

### compton-wave-b.iwp

A light wave initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. The relative speeds of the light and the electron are physically accurate.

### compton-wave.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. Note that the photon is repesented by an arrow.

### concept_wedge.iwp

Concept_wedge 2004.09.18: iwpmtg Concept Problem.

### compton-wave.iwp

A photon initially moving to the right is scattered by an electron initially at rest at the origin. Note that the photon is repesented by an arrow.

### concept_wedge.iwp

Concept_wedge 2004.09.18: iwpmtg Concept Problem.

### concept_wedge_2.iwp

Concept_wedge 2004.09.18: iwpmtg Concept Problem.

### concept_wedge.iwp

Concept_wedge 2004.09.18: iwpmtg Concept Problem.

### concept_wedge_2.iwp

Concept_wedge 2004.09.18: iwpmtg Concept Problem.

### cons_force.iwp

A blue block is lifted at constant velocity to a height and then returned to its starting point. In the same amount of time, a red block is pushed at constant velocity along a horizontal surface and then returned to its starting point.

### concept_wedge_2.iwp

Concept_wedge 2004.09.18: iwpmtg Concept Problem.

### cons_force.iwp

A blue block is lifted at constant velocity to a height and then returned to its starting point. In the same amount of time, a red block is pushed at constant velocity along a horizontal surface and then returned to its starting point.

### coulombslaw01.iwp

Two balls of equal mass (see Input for value) are suspended from long strings of equal length. The balls are initially charged to the same value of charge Qo. You can add charge to each ball in increments of the initial charge by clicking on the step button (>>). The number by which the charge on each ball is multiplied is listed as an output. The X- and Y-coordinates of the blue ball are also given as outputs. Determine the value of the initial charge Qo. This requires a net force analysis as well as Coulomb's Law. Once you've determined Qo, check your value by changing the mass to something different. Calculate what the separation of the balls should be for that mass. Then check to see if you're right.

### cons_force.iwp

A blue block is lifted at constant velocity to a height and then returned to its starting point. In the same amount of time, a red block is pushed at constant velocity along a horizontal surface and then returned to its starting point.

### coulombslaw01.iwp

Two balls of equal mass (see Input for value) are suspended from long strings of equal length. The balls are initially charged to the same value of charge Qo. You can add charge to each ball in increments of the initial charge by clicking on the step button (>>). The number by which the charge on each ball is multiplied is listed as an output. The X- and Y-coordinates of the blue ball are also given as outputs. Determine the value of the initial charge Qo. This requires a net force analysis as well as Coulomb's Law. Once you've determined Qo, check your value by changing the mass to something different. Calculate what the separation of the balls should be for that mass. Then check to see if you're right.

### coulombslaw02.iwp

The blue and red balls have the same size, shape, and composition. They have a coating of graphite paint, which makes their surfaces good conductors. The red ball, hanging from a long thread, is initially uncharged while the blue ball has been charged by momentarily touching it to a balloon rubbed with fur. The blue ball, which is attached to a horizontal insulating handle, is momentarily touched to the red ball. (These initial preparations are not shown in the animation.) In order to see the state of the red and blue balls after their momentary contact, click the step button (>>) once. The red ball deflects away from its initial equilibrium position. Note that the X-coordinates of the balls are given as outputs. These enable one to determine the separation of the balls and the horizontal deflection of the red ball. Both of these are related to electrostatic force that either ball exerts on the other. Click on the step (>>) button to move the right charge toward the left in increments of 0.01 m and view the corresponding position of the red ball. Step through the animation and take data on horizontal deflection of the left ball vs. separation of both balls. Graph and fit the data appropriately. Use a coefficient from the fit to determine the charge on either ball. In order to determine the relationship between the coefficient and the charge, you'll need to do a theoretical force analysis of the situation. In order to simplify the math, assume that the angle that the string makes with the vertical is small. This will allow you to say that the angle and its sine (or tangent) are approximately equal.

### coulombslaw01.iwp

Two balls of equal mass (see Input for value) are suspended from long strings of equal length. The balls are initially charged to the same value of charge Qo. You can add charge to each ball in increments of the initial charge by clicking on the step button (>>). The number by which the charge on each ball is multiplied is listed as an output. The X- and Y-coordinates of the blue ball are also given as outputs. Determine the value of the initial charge Qo. This requires a net force analysis as well as Coulomb's Law. Once you've determined Qo, check your value by changing the mass to something different. Calculate what the separation of the balls should be for that mass. Then check to see if you're right.

### coulombslaw02.iwp

The blue and red balls have the same size, shape, and composition. They have a coating of graphite paint, which makes their surfaces good conductors. The red ball, hanging from a long thread, is initially uncharged while the blue ball has been charged by momentarily touching it to a balloon rubbed with fur. The blue ball, which is attached to a horizontal insulating handle, is momentarily touched to the red ball. (These initial preparations are not shown in the animation.) In order to see the state of the red and blue balls after their momentary contact, click the step button (>>) once. The red ball deflects away from its initial equilibrium position. Note that the X-coordinates of the balls are given as outputs. These enable one to determine the separation of the balls and the horizontal deflection of the red ball. Both of these are related to electrostatic force that either ball exerts on the other. Click on the step (>>) button to move the right charge toward the left in increments of 0.01 m and view the corresponding position of the red ball. Step through the animation and take data on horizontal deflection of the left ball vs. separation of both balls. Graph and fit the data appropriately. Use a coefficient from the fit to determine the charge on either ball. In order to determine the relationship between the coefficient and the charge, you'll need to do a theoretical force analysis of the situation. In order to simplify the math, assume that the angle that the string makes with the vertical is small. This will allow you to say that the angle and its sine (or tangent) are approximately equal.

### coulombslaw03.iwp

A red ball is connected to a spring which is fixed at the left side of the screen. The ball is initially at the unstretched/uncompressed position of the spring, x = 0. A blue ball, soon to appear, has the same charge as the red ball. In order to bring the blue ball into the picture, click the step button (>>) once. You'll see the blue ball attached to a horizontal insulating handle.The red ball is forced away from its initial position and compresses the spring due to electrostatic force of the blue ball. Click the step button once again to move the blue ball to the left. The spring compresses more. The X-coordinates of the balls are given as outputs. These enable one to determine the separation of the balls as well as the displacement of the red ball from equillibrium. Both of these are related to the electrostatic force that either ball exerts on the other. Click on the step (>>) button to move the blue ball toward the left in increments of 0.01 m and view the corresponding position of the red ball. (Don't use the play button, >, as this may give incorrect results.) Something to think about: How does the separation of the balls change as the blue ball moves to the left? Why does this make sense (based on the forces acting on the red ball)?

### coulombslaw02.iwp

The blue and red balls have the same size, shape, and composition. They have a coating of graphite paint, which makes their surfaces good conductors. The red ball, hanging from a long thread, is initially uncharged while the blue ball has been charged by momentarily touching it to a balloon rubbed with fur. The blue ball, which is attached to a horizontal insulating handle, is momentarily touched to the red ball. (These initial preparations are not shown in the animation.) In order to see the state of the red and blue balls after their momentary contact, click the step button (>>) once. The red ball deflects away from its initial equilibrium position. Note that the X-coordinates of the balls are given as outputs. These enable one to determine the separation of the balls and the horizontal deflection of the red ball. Both of these are related to electrostatic force that either ball exerts on the other. Click on the step (>>) button to move the right charge toward the left in increments of 0.01 m and view the corresponding position of the red ball. Step through the animation and take data on horizontal deflection of the left ball vs. separation of both balls. Graph and fit the data appropriately. Use a coefficient from the fit to determine the charge on either ball. In order to determine the relationship between the coefficient and the charge, you'll need to do a theoretical force analysis of the situation. In order to simplify the math, assume that the angle that the string makes with the vertical is small. This will allow you to say that the angle and its sine (or tangent) are approximately equal.

### coulombslaw03.iwp

A red ball is connected to a spring which is fixed at the left side of the screen. The ball is initially at the unstretched/uncompressed position of the spring, x = 0. A blue ball, soon to appear, has the same charge as the red ball. In order to bring the blue ball into the picture, click the step button (>>) once. You'll see the blue ball attached to a horizontal insulating handle.The red ball is forced away from its initial position and compresses the spring due to electrostatic force of the blue ball. Click the step button once again to move the blue ball to the left. The spring compresses more. The X-coordinates of the balls are given as outputs. These enable one to determine the separation of the balls as well as the displacement of the red ball from equillibrium. Both of these are related to the electrostatic force that either ball exerts on the other. Click on the step (>>) button to move the blue ball toward the left in increments of 0.01 m and view the corresponding position of the red ball. (Don't use the play button, >, as this may give incorrect results.) Something to think about: How does the separation of the balls change as the blue ball moves to the left? Why does this make sense (based on the forces acting on the red ball)?

### cp-efield-02.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis. Note this sign convention: The direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) The red and blue vectors on the particle represents its velocity and acceleration.

### coulombslaw03.iwp

A red ball is connected to a spring which is fixed at the left side of the screen. The ball is initially at the unstretched/uncompressed position of the spring, x = 0. A blue ball, soon to appear, has the same charge as the red ball. In order to bring the blue ball into the picture, click the step button (>>) once. You'll see the blue ball attached to a horizontal insulating handle.The red ball is forced away from its initial position and compresses the spring due to electrostatic force of the blue ball. Click the step button once again to move the blue ball to the left. The spring compresses more. The X-coordinates of the balls are given as outputs. These enable one to determine the separation of the balls as well as the displacement of the red ball from equillibrium. Both of these are related to the electrostatic force that either ball exerts on the other. Click on the step (>>) button to move the blue ball toward the left in increments of 0.01 m and view the corresponding position of the red ball. (Don't use the play button, >, as this may give incorrect results.) Something to think about: How does the separation of the balls change as the blue ball moves to the left? Why does this make sense (based on the forces acting on the red ball)?

### cp-efield-02.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis. Note this sign convention: The direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) The red and blue vectors on the particle represents its velocity and acceleration.

### cp-efield.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis as shown by the vector at lower right. Note this sign convention: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) The red and blue vectors on the particle represents its velocity and acceleration.

### cp-efield-02.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis. Note this sign convention: The direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) The red and blue vectors on the particle represents its velocity and acceleration.

### cp-efield.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis as shown by the vector at lower right. Note this sign convention: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) The red and blue vectors on the particle represents its velocity and acceleration.

### cp-emfield.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis. Sign conventions: positive E is +y (toward top of screen) positive B is +z (outward from screen) The directions of E and B are indicated at lower right. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = net force The parallelogram of forces is also shown in yellow.

### cp-efield.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis as shown by the vector at lower right. Note this sign convention: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) The red and blue vectors on the particle represents its velocity and acceleration.

### cp-emfield.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis. Sign conventions: positive E is +y (toward top of screen) positive B is +z (outward from screen) The directions of E and B are indicated at lower right. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = net force The parallelogram of forces is also shown in yellow.

### cp-mfield-02.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). The direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen). The blue vector on the particle represents its acceleration. The grid scale is located under the tab marked by two boxes.

### cp-emfield.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis. Sign conventions: positive E is +y (toward top of screen) positive B is +z (outward from screen) The directions of E and B are indicated at lower right. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = net force The parallelogram of forces is also shown in yellow.

### cp-mfield-02.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). The direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen). The blue vector on the particle represents its acceleration. The grid scale is located under the tab marked by two boxes.

### cp-mfield.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). The direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen). The blue vector on the particle represents its acceleration.

### cp-mfield-02.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). The direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen). The blue vector on the particle represents its acceleration. The grid scale is located under the tab marked by two boxes.

### cp-mfield.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). The direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen). The blue vector on the particle represents its acceleration.

### cp-template.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen)

### cp-mfield.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). The direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen). The blue vector on the particle represents its acceleration.

### cp-template.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen)

### cp-unknown-1.iwp

Three different charged particles of equal kinetic energy move under the influence of a uniform magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the screen. Graphs of vertical position vs. time can be displayed by clicking Show graph. 1. Taking the red particle to have a unit charge of +1 and a unit mass of 1, what are the charges and masses of the other particles? 2. Determine one possible combination of real particles that the three charges could represent.

### cp-template.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen)

### cp-unknown-1.iwp

Three different charged particles of equal kinetic energy move under the influence of a uniform magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the screen. Graphs of vertical position vs. time can be displayed by clicking Show graph. 1. Taking the red particle to have a unit charge of +1 and a unit mass of 1, what are the charges and masses of the other particles? 2. Determine one possible combination of real particles that the three charges could represent.

### cpchall01.iwp

Challenge 1. An electron is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Enter the magnetic field that will make the electron move in a path of radius 0.050 m. Note that a positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. Also note the following: After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cp-unknown-1.iwp

Three different charged particles of equal kinetic energy move under the influence of a uniform magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the screen. Graphs of vertical position vs. time can be displayed by clicking Show graph. 1. Taking the red particle to have a unit charge of +1 and a unit mass of 1, what are the charges and masses of the other particles? 2. Determine one possible combination of real particles that the three charges could represent.

### cpchall01.iwp

Challenge 1. An electron is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Enter the magnetic field that will make the electron move in a path of radius 0.050 m. Note that a positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. Also note the following: After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall01euler.iwp

Challenge 1. An electron is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Enter the magnetic field that will make the electron move in a path of radius 0.050 m. Note that a positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. Also note the following: After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall01.iwp

Challenge 1. An electron is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Enter the magnetic field that will make the electron move in a path of radius 0.050 m. Note that a positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. Also note the following: After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall01euler.iwp

Challenge 1. An electron is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Enter the magnetic field that will make the electron move in a path of radius 0.050 m. Note that a positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. Also note the following: After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall02.iwp

Challenge 2. Orbiting alpha particle An alpha particle is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Enter the magnetic field that will make the alpha move in a path of radius 0.050 m. Notes: A positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall01euler.iwp

Challenge 1. An electron is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Enter the magnetic field that will make the electron move in a path of radius 0.050 m. Note that a positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. Also note the following: After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall02.iwp

Challenge 2. Orbiting alpha particle An alpha particle is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Enter the magnetic field that will make the alpha move in a path of radius 0.050 m. Notes: A positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall03.iwp

Challenge 3. Unknown X particle Use magnetic fields to investigate the unknown X particle. Determine as much as you can about the charge and mass. Notes: A positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall02.iwp

Challenge 2. Orbiting alpha particle An alpha particle is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Enter the magnetic field that will make the alpha move in a path of radius 0.050 m. Notes: A positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall03.iwp

Challenge 3. Unknown X particle Use magnetic fields to investigate the unknown X particle. Determine as much as you can about the charge and mass. Notes: A positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall04.iwp

Challenge 4. Explore Electric Field Investigate the effect of an electric field on the motion of an electron. Notes: Positive E-fields are to the right and positive B-fields are out of the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall03.iwp

Challenge 3. Unknown X particle Use magnetic fields to investigate the unknown X particle. Determine as much as you can about the charge and mass. Notes: A positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall04.iwp

Challenge 4. Explore Electric Field Investigate the effect of an electric field on the motion of an electron. Notes: Positive E-fields are to the right and positive B-fields are out of the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall05.iwp

Challenge 5. A positron is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Determine the charge-to-mass ratio of the particle. A positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall04.iwp

Challenge 4. Explore Electric Field Investigate the effect of an electric field on the motion of an electron. Notes: Positive E-fields are to the right and positive B-fields are out of the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall05.iwp

Challenge 5. A positron is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Determine the charge-to-mass ratio of the particle. A positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall07.iwp

Challenge 7. Velocity Filter Begin by finding the magnitude and direction of the electric field such that the electric force balances the magnetic force and the electron travels straight up. Notes: Positive E-fields are to the right and positive B-fields are out of the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall05.iwp

Challenge 5. A positron is shot along the +y-axis from the origin. Determine the charge-to-mass ratio of the particle. A positive value of B-field indicates that B points outward from the screen. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall07.iwp

Challenge 7. Velocity Filter Begin by finding the magnitude and direction of the electric field such that the electric force balances the magnetic force and the electron travels straight up. Notes: Positive E-fields are to the right and positive B-fields are out of the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall08.iwp

Two singly-ionized isotopes of the same element are injected at the same velocity into a region of uniform magnetic field pointing out of the screen. (There is no field below the x-axis). Determine the ratio of the masses of the isotopes.

### cpchall07.iwp

Challenge 7. Velocity Filter Begin by finding the magnitude and direction of the electric field such that the electric force balances the magnetic force and the electron travels straight up. Notes: Positive E-fields are to the right and positive B-fields are out of the screen. After making a change in any Input, click Reset. The grid spacing is 0.01 m along both axes. Form of powers of ten entry: 5E-3 = 0.005

### cpchall08.iwp

Two singly-ionized isotopes of the same element are injected at the same velocity into a region of uniform magnetic field pointing out of the screen. (There is no field below the x-axis). Determine the ratio of the masses of the isotopes.

### cptemplate.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen)

### cpchall08.iwp

Two singly-ionized isotopes of the same element are injected at the same velocity into a region of uniform magnetic field pointing out of the screen. (There is no field below the x-axis). Determine the ratio of the masses of the isotopes.

### cptemplate.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen)

### cptemplate.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen)

### damped-1.iwp

The blue line plots position (vertical) as a function of time (horizontal) for damped SHM. The red line plots the decay of the amplitude.

### damped-1.iwp

The blue line plots position (vertical) as a function of time (horizontal) for damped SHM. The red line plots the decay of the amplitude.

### damped-SHM-template.iwp

This plots position (vertical) as a function of time (horizontal) for an object subject to a Hooke's Law restoring force. Suppose that the object is also subject to a force that always acts opposite the velocity, v, and is proportional to the magnitude of v. If the constant of proportionality is denoted R, then this damping force is -Rv. Modify the applet to display the motion of the object by doing the following: 1. Create a new input for R. Give R an initial value of 0. 2. Modify the equation for the object's y-acceleration to include a term that accounts for the damping. 3. Run the applet. Make sure it still runs correctly for the undamped case, R = 0. 4. Investigate the motion for different values of R (say 1, 5, 10, 20).

### damped-1.iwp

The blue line plots position (vertical) as a function of time (horizontal) for damped SHM. The red line plots the decay of the amplitude.

### damped-SHM-template.iwp

This plots position (vertical) as a function of time (horizontal) for an object subject to a Hooke's Law restoring force. Suppose that the object is also subject to a force that always acts opposite the velocity, v, and is proportional to the magnitude of v. If the constant of proportionality is denoted R, then this damping force is -Rv. Modify the applet to display the motion of the object by doing the following: 1. Create a new input for R. Give R an initial value of 0. 2. Modify the equation for the object's y-acceleration to include a term that accounts for the damping. 3. Run the applet. Make sure it still runs correctly for the undamped case, R = 0. 4. Investigate the motion for different values of R (say 1, 5, 10, 20).

### dampened-oscillation-cockrell.iwp

A string is oscillated by a rod on the left. The traveling wave created on the string damps to zero as it approaches the right end, which is initially fixed. In this mode the damping coefficient has no effect. The right end can be released by selecting 0 for Fixed End? In this case, the damping coefficient can be adjusted. There is no reflection of the wave, as it can be thought of as extending indefinitely to the right out of view.

### damped-SHM-template.iwp

This plots position (vertical) as a function of time (horizontal) for an object subject to a Hooke's Law restoring force. Suppose that the object is also subject to a force that always acts opposite the velocity, v, and is proportional to the magnitude of v. If the constant of proportionality is denoted R, then this damping force is -Rv. Modify the applet to display the motion of the object by doing the following: 1. Create a new input for R. Give R an initial value of 0. 2. Modify the equation for the object's y-acceleration to include a term that accounts for the damping. 3. Run the applet. Make sure it still runs correctly for the undamped case, R = 0. 4. Investigate the motion for different values of R (say 1, 5, 10, 20).

### dampened-oscillation-cockrell.iwp

A string is oscillated by a rod on the left. The traveling wave created on the string damps to zero as it approaches the right end, which is initially fixed. In this mode the damping coefficient has no effect. The right end can be released by selecting 0 for Fixed End? In this case, the damping coefficient can be adjusted. There is no reflection of the wave, as it can be thought of as extending indefinitely to the right out of view.

### dampened-oscillation-cockrell.iwp

A string is oscillated by a rod on the left. The traveling wave created on the string damps to zero as it approaches the right end, which is initially fixed. In this mode the damping coefficient has no effect. The right end can be released by selecting 0 for Fixed End? In this case, the damping coefficient can be adjusted. There is no reflection of the wave, as it can be thought of as extending indefinitely to the right out of view.

### dart_gun2_2.iwp

Dart gun problem from ETPT workshop

### dart_gun2_2.iwp

Dart gun problem from ETPT workshop

### dartgun-quiz.iwp

Select the angle of launch of the ball necessary to hit the target.

### dart_gun2_2.iwp

Dart gun problem from ETPT workshop

### dartgun-quiz.iwp

Select the angle of launch of the ball necessary to hit the target.

### dartgun3.iwp

Select the angle of launch of the ball to hit the target.

### dartgun-quiz.iwp

Select the angle of launch of the ball necessary to hit the target.

### dartgun3.iwp

Select the angle of launch of the ball to hit the target.

### density-01.iwp

A block is lowered by a string into a fluid.

### dartgun3.iwp

Select the angle of launch of the ball to hit the target.

### density-01.iwp

A block is lowered by a string into a fluid.

### density-01.iwp

A block is lowered by a string into a fluid.

### doppler-test.iwp

In order to make this work, these variables must be entered in the wavebox properties. Note that this can not be done in the client application. For Vx, enter vs. For Frequency, enter f. For Wavelength, enter vw/f.

### doppler-test.iwp

In order to make this work, these variables must be entered in the wavebox properties. Note that this can not be done in the client application. For Vx, enter vs. For Frequency, enter f. For Wavelength, enter vw/f.

### doppler3.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity.

### doppler-test.iwp

In order to make this work, these variables must be entered in the wavebox properties. Note that this can not be done in the client application. For Vx, enter vs. For Frequency, enter f. For Wavelength, enter vw/f.

### doppler3.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity.

### doppler3line.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity.

### doppler3.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity.

### doppler3line.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity.

### doppler3vector.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity.

### doppler3line.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity.

### doppler3vector.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity.

### doppler4.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity. The current position of the source is indicated by a red dot. Note that the spacing of the dark, vertical grid lines is 200 m. Determine the period of the wave, the velocity of the wave, the velocity of the source, the frequency perceived by an observer at the right edge of the screen, and the frequency perceived by an observer at the left edge of the screen.

### doppler3vector.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity.

### doppler4.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity. The current position of the source is indicated by a red dot. Note that the spacing of the dark, vertical grid lines is 200 m. Determine the period of the wave, the velocity of the wave, the velocity of the source, the frequency perceived by an observer at the right edge of the screen, and the frequency perceived by an observer at the left edge of the screen.

### doppler5.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity. The current position of the source is indicated by a red dot. The grid spacing, both horizontal and vertical, is 100 m. Determine the Mach number of the source.

### doppler4.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity. The current position of the source is indicated by a red dot. Note that the spacing of the dark, vertical grid lines is 200 m. Determine the period of the wave, the velocity of the wave, the velocity of the source, the frequency perceived by an observer at the right edge of the screen, and the frequency perceived by an observer at the left edge of the screen.

### doppler5.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity. The current position of the source is indicated by a red dot. The grid spacing, both horizontal and vertical, is 100 m. Determine the Mach number of the source.

### double-slit-1.iwp

Two sources of monochromatic waves are situated on either side of the origin. The sources oscillate in phase. The pattern of interference fringes is projected on a screen near the top of the display. Playing the animation will decrease the source separation and show the resulting change in the interference pattern. Actual fringes would have intensity variations that can't be displayed in the animation.

### doppler5.iwp

A source of point spherical waves moves along the x-axis at constant velocity. The current position of the source is indicated by a red dot. The grid spacing, both horizontal and vertical, is 100 m. Determine the Mach number of the source.

### double-slit-1.iwp

Two sources of monochromatic waves are situated on either side of the origin. The sources oscillate in phase. The pattern of interference fringes is projected on a screen near the top of the display. Playing the animation will decrease the source separation and show the resulting change in the interference pattern. Actual fringes would have intensity variations that can't be displayed in the animation.

### dvat-01.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### double-slit-1.iwp

Two sources of monochromatic waves are situated on either side of the origin. The sources oscillate in phase. The pattern of interference fringes is projected on a screen near the top of the display. Playing the animation will decrease the source separation and show the resulting change in the interference pattern. Actual fringes would have intensity variations that can't be displayed in the animation.

### dvat-01.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-02.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-01.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-02.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-03.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-02.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-03.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-04.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-03.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-04.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-05.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-04.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-05.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-06.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-05.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-06.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-07.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-06.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-07.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-08.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-07.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-08.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-09.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-08.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-09.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-10.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-09.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-10.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-11.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of the blue dot. In your notes, sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-10.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of an object having the given initial velocity and acceleration. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-11.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of the blue dot. In your notes, sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-template.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions. The velocity vs. time graph is the blue line, and the acceleration vs. time graph is the red line.

### dvat-11.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph of the blue dot. In your notes, sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions.

### dvat-template.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions. The velocity vs. time graph is the blue line, and the acceleration vs. time graph is the red line.

### dvat-template.iwp

Play the applet to show a position vs. time graph. Sketch your predictions for the shapes of the corresponding velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Then click on Show graph to check your predictions. The velocity vs. time graph is the blue line, and the acceleration vs. time graph is the red line.

### efield-lines-01.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-lines-01.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-01.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge (green) is initially located on the y-axis. Lines (black) from the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge are shown. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation forward will advance the horizontal position of the test charge in the given increment, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The vertical position of the test charge can also be moved by selecting a non-zero increment of Y-position. In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected.

### efield-lines-01.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-01.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge (green) is initially located on the y-axis. Lines (black) from the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge are shown. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation forward will advance the horizontal position of the test charge in the given increment, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The vertical position of the test charge can also be moved by selecting a non-zero increment of Y-position. In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected.

### efield-plot-02a.iwp

A charge (red) is positioned at the origin. A positive test charge is represented by the black dot. A vector representing the magnitude and direction of the electric field of the red charge at the position of the test charge is shown. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vector will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-01.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge (green) is initially located on the y-axis. Lines (black) from the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge are shown. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation forward will advance the horizontal position of the test charge in the given increment, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The vertical position of the test charge can also be moved by selecting a non-zero increment of Y-position. In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected.

### efield-plot-02a.iwp

A charge (red) is positioned at the origin. A positive test charge is represented by the black dot. A vector representing the magnitude and direction of the electric field of the red charge at the position of the test charge is shown. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vector will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-02b.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-02a.iwp

A charge (red) is positioned at the origin. A positive test charge is represented by the black dot. A vector representing the magnitude and direction of the electric field of the red charge at the position of the test charge is shown. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vector will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-02b.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-02c.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-02b.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-02c.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-02d.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-02c.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-02d.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-02e.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. Find three different combinations of red and blue charges (other than the original one) so that the net electric field on the x-axis is 0. How could you give in one sentence an infinite number of combinations of red and blue charges?

### efield-plot-02d.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor.

### efield-plot-02e.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. Find three different combinations of red and blue charges (other than the original one) so that the net electric field on the x-axis is 0. How could you give in one sentence an infinite number of combinations of red and blue charges?

### efield-plot-02f.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### efield-plot-02e.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge down the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. Find three different combinations of red and blue charges (other than the original one) so that the net electric field on the x-axis is 0. How could you give in one sentence an infinite number of combinations of red and blue charges?

### efield-plot-02f.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### efield-plot-02g.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### efield-plot-02f.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### efield-plot-02g.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### efield-plot-03.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. Note the following: The blue charge is always +1.0 C and is positioned at 3.0 m.

### efield-plot-02g.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### efield-plot-03.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. Note the following: The blue charge is always +1.0 C and is positioned at 3.0 m.

### efield-vectors-03.iwp

The four panels show four representations of the electric field vectors at the position of a positive test charge (green) due to blue and red charges. Only one panel shows the vectors correclty The signs and relative magnitudes of the point charges are given. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram. Assume that all particles are point charges. For Reference: Blue Vector: Electric field due to blue point charge Red Vector: Electric field due to red point charge Green Vector: Net electric field at position of the green charge

### efield-plot-03.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. Note the following: The blue charge is always +1.0 C and is positioned at 3.0 m.

### efield-vectors-03.iwp

The four panels show four representations of the electric field vectors at the position of a positive test charge (green) due to blue and red charges. Only one panel shows the vectors correclty The signs and relative magnitudes of the point charges are given. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram. Assume that all particles are point charges. For Reference: Blue Vector: Electric field due to blue point charge Red Vector: Electric field due to red point charge Green Vector: Net electric field at position of the green charge

### efield-vectors-04.iwp

The Four panels show four representations on a charged particle. The Electric Field Vectors are shown, but only one panel is correct. The Charges of the point charges are given, and the charged particle has a negative charge. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram. For Reference: Blue Vector: Electric Field Vector of Negative Point Charge Red Vector: Electric Field Vector of Positive Point Charge Green Vector: Net Electric Field Vector at Particle

### efield-vectors-03.iwp

The four panels show four representations of the electric field vectors at the position of a positive test charge (green) due to blue and red charges. Only one panel shows the vectors correclty The signs and relative magnitudes of the point charges are given. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram. Assume that all particles are point charges. For Reference: Blue Vector: Electric field due to blue point charge Red Vector: Electric field due to red point charge Green Vector: Net electric field at position of the green charge

### efield-vectors-04.iwp

The Four panels show four representations on a charged particle. The Electric Field Vectors are shown, but only one panel is correct. The Charges of the point charges are given, and the charged particle has a negative charge. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram. For Reference: Blue Vector: Electric Field Vector of Negative Point Charge Red Vector: Electric Field Vector of Positive Point Charge Green Vector: Net Electric Field Vector at Particle

### efield-vectors-05.iwp

The four panels show four representations of the electric fields at the indicated point due to the blue and red charged particles. The charges are given as inputs. The color of the vector indicates the charge that it goes with. Only one panel is correct. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram.

### efield-vectors-04.iwp

The Four panels show four representations on a charged particle. The Electric Field Vectors are shown, but only one panel is correct. The Charges of the point charges are given, and the charged particle has a negative charge. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram. For Reference: Blue Vector: Electric Field Vector of Negative Point Charge Red Vector: Electric Field Vector of Positive Point Charge Green Vector: Net Electric Field Vector at Particle

### efield-vectors-05.iwp

The four panels show four representations of the electric fields at the indicated point due to the blue and red charged particles. The charges are given as inputs. The color of the vector indicates the charge that it goes with. Only one panel is correct. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram.

### efield-vectors-06.iwp

The four panels show four representations of the electric fields at the indicated point due to the blue and red charged particles. The charges are given as inputs. The color of the vector indicates the charge that it goes with. Only one panel is correct. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram.

### efield-vectors-05.iwp

The four panels show four representations of the electric fields at the indicated point due to the blue and red charged particles. The charges are given as inputs. The color of the vector indicates the charge that it goes with. Only one panel is correct. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram.

### efield-vectors-06.iwp

The four panels show four representations of the electric fields at the indicated point due to the blue and red charged particles. The charges are given as inputs. The color of the vector indicates the charge that it goes with. Only one panel is correct. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram.

### eforce-02.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### efield-vectors-06.iwp

The four panels show four representations of the electric fields at the indicated point due to the blue and red charged particles. The charges are given as inputs. The color of the vector indicates the charge that it goes with. Only one panel is correct. Choose the panel that has the correct electric field diagram.

### eforce-02.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### eforce-03.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### eforce-02.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### eforce-03.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### eforce-04.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. The green charge, which is positive, is moved by external means back and forth along the y-axis. The green vector represents the net electric force on the green charge due to the red and blue charges. Run the animation to see how the net electric force changes as the green charge changes position. a. If both red and blue charges are positive, which of the two charges has greater magnitude? b. Why is it impossible for the red charge to be negative and the blue charge to be positive? c. Assume that both charges are positive and that the red charge has four times the magnitude as the blue charge. Where on the x-axis must the green charge be located so that the net electric force on the green charge is 0? d. Now assume that the red charge is positive, the blue charge is negative, and the red charge has greater magnitude than the blue charge. For what positions below is it possible for the green charge to experience 0 net electric force? i. x is less than -0.06 m, y = 0 ii. x is greater than +0.06 m, y = 0

### eforce-03.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are positioned on the x-axis and produce an electric field in the space surrounding them. A positive test charge is represented by the green dot. Vectors representing the magnitude and direction of the fields of the red and blue charges and of the net field are shown at the position of the test charge. Lines (black) are drawn from each of the red and blue charges to the position of the test charge. Running or stepping the animation will move the test charge across the screen, and the E-field vectors will change accordingly. The direction of motion can be made horizontal or vertical in either direction by the appropriate choice of the X and Y motions: 1 = move horizontally (vertically) to the right (up) 0 = don't move -1= move horizontally (vertically) to the left (down) In addition, the initial coordinates of the test charge can be selected. For easier viewing, the vectors may be scaled to larger or smaller lengths by increasing or decreasing the vector scale factor. For the given charges, find the position on the x-axis where the net electric field is 0.

### eforce-04.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. The green charge, which is positive, is moved by external means back and forth along the y-axis. The green vector represents the net electric force on the green charge due to the red and blue charges. Run the animation to see how the net electric force changes as the green charge changes position. a. If both red and blue charges are positive, which of the two charges has greater magnitude? b. Why is it impossible for the red charge to be negative and the blue charge to be positive? c. Assume that both charges are positive and that the red charge has four times the magnitude as the blue charge. Where on the x-axis must the green charge be located so that the net electric force on the green charge is 0? d. Now assume that the red charge is positive, the blue charge is negative, and the red charge has greater magnitude than the blue charge. For what positions below is it possible for the green charge to experience 0 net electric force? i. x is less than -0.06 m, y = 0 ii. x is greater than +0.06 m, y = 0

### eforce-05.iwp

This is a multiple-choice problem. Enter each of the numbers 1 to 4 in the Choice box. Reset after entering a number. Each choice shows a different version of the electric forces on the positive green charge due to the red and blue charges. Which one of the choices is correct?

### eforce-04.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. The green charge, which is positive, is moved by external means back and forth along the y-axis. The green vector represents the net electric force on the green charge due to the red and blue charges. Run the animation to see how the net electric force changes as the green charge changes position. a. If both red and blue charges are positive, which of the two charges has greater magnitude? b. Why is it impossible for the red charge to be negative and the blue charge to be positive? c. Assume that both charges are positive and that the red charge has four times the magnitude as the blue charge. Where on the x-axis must the green charge be located so that the net electric force on the green charge is 0? d. Now assume that the red charge is positive, the blue charge is negative, and the red charge has greater magnitude than the blue charge. For what positions below is it possible for the green charge to experience 0 net electric force? i. x is less than -0.06 m, y = 0 ii. x is greater than +0.06 m, y = 0

### eforce-05.iwp

This is a multiple-choice problem. Enter each of the numbers 1 to 4 in the Choice box. Reset after entering a number. Each choice shows a different version of the electric forces on the positive green charge due to the red and blue charges. Which one of the choices is correct?

### eforce-06.iwp

If the green charge is +1.0 uc (microcoulomb), what are the magnitude and direction of the net electric force on the green charge? Note that all the charges are positive.

### eforce-05.iwp

This is a multiple-choice problem. Enter each of the numbers 1 to 4 in the Choice box. Reset after entering a number. Each choice shows a different version of the electric forces on the positive green charge due to the red and blue charges. Which one of the choices is correct?

### eforce-06.iwp

If the green charge is +1.0 uc (microcoulomb), what are the magnitude and direction of the net electric force on the green charge? Note that all the charges are positive.

### eforce-07.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. The green vector represents the net electric force on the positive green charge due to the red and blue charges. At what position will the net force on the green charge be 0?

### eforce-06.iwp

If the green charge is +1.0 uc (microcoulomb), what are the magnitude and direction of the net electric force on the green charge? Note that all the charges are positive.

### eforce-07.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. The green vector represents the net electric force on the positive green charge due to the red and blue charges. At what position will the net force on the green charge be 0?

### eforce-08.iwp

Two charged objects (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. When the animation is started, a small green charged object is pushed back and forth between the red and blue objects. (If you want to make the hand invisible, change the Hand Visible input to 0.) The red and blue vectors represent the electric forces on the green object due to red and blue objects respectively. The green vector represents the net electric force on the green object due to the blue and red objects. Step through the animation to see how the net electric force changes with the position of the green object.

### eforce-07.iwp

Two charges (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. The green vector represents the net electric force on the positive green charge due to the red and blue charges. At what position will the net force on the green charge be 0?

### eforce-08.iwp

Two charged objects (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. When the animation is started, a small green charged object is pushed back and forth between the red and blue objects. (If you want to make the hand invisible, change the Hand Visible input to 0.) The red and blue vectors represent the electric forces on the green object due to red and blue objects respectively. The green vector represents the net electric force on the green object due to the blue and red objects. Step through the animation to see how the net electric force changes with the position of the green object.

### eforce-09.iwp

Two charged objects (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. When the animation is started, a small green charged object is pushed back and forth between the red and blue objects. (If you want to make the hand invisible, change the Hand Visible input to 0.) The red and blue vectors represent the electric forces on the green object due to red and blue objects respectively. The green vector represents the net electric force on the green object due to the blue and red objects. The position of the green object and magnitude of the net force on the green object are given under Outputs.

### eforce-08.iwp

Two charged objects (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. When the animation is started, a small green charged object is pushed back and forth between the red and blue objects. (If you want to make the hand invisible, change the Hand Visible input to 0.) The red and blue vectors represent the electric forces on the green object due to red and blue objects respectively. The green vector represents the net electric force on the green object due to the blue and red objects. Step through the animation to see how the net electric force changes with the position of the green object.

### eforce-09.iwp

Two charged objects (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. When the animation is started, a small green charged object is pushed back and forth between the red and blue objects. (If you want to make the hand invisible, change the Hand Visible input to 0.) The red and blue vectors represent the electric forces on the green object due to red and blue objects respectively. The green vector represents the net electric force on the green object due to the blue and red objects. The position of the green object and magnitude of the net force on the green object are given under Outputs.

### eforce-09.iwp

Two charged objects (red and blue) are fixed in position on the x-axis. When the animation is started, a small green charged object is pushed back and forth between the red and blue objects. (If you want to make the hand invisible, change the Hand Visible input to 0.) The red and blue vectors represent the electric forces on the green object due to red and blue objects respectively. The green vector represents the net electric force on the green object due to the blue and red objects. The position of the green object and magnitude of the net force on the green object are given under Outputs.

### elastic-collision-1.iwp

Two gliders of collide in an elastic collision. The red glider is initially stationary. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects will be displayed as a function of time. A 3rd, black line will also be shown in order to help you see a pattern. Try collisions for different values of mass and initial velocity. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### elastic-collision-1.iwp

Two gliders of collide in an elastic collision. The red glider is initially stationary. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects will be displayed as a function of time. A 3rd, black line will also be shown in order to help you see a pattern. Try collisions for different values of mass and initial velocity. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### elec-energy-01.iwp

A proton moves initially to the left in a uniform electric field. Assuming no forces are acting other than the electric force, what is the initial velocity of the proton? The position of the proton in centimeters is given as an output.

### elastic-collision-1.iwp

Two gliders of collide in an elastic collision. The red glider is initially stationary. Play the animation. Click Show Graph. The velocities of the two objects will be displayed as a function of time. A 3rd, black line will also be shown in order to help you see a pattern. Try collisions for different values of mass and initial velocity. After a while, you should be able to predict the final velocities, given any pair of initial velocities.

### elec-energy-01.iwp

A proton moves initially to the left in a uniform electric field. Assuming no forces are acting other than the electric force, what is the initial velocity of the proton? The position of the proton in centimeters is given as an output.

### elec-energy-02.iwp

A proton moves initially to the left under the influence of both a uniform electric field and an external force pointed to the left. What is the initial velocity of the proton? The position of the proton in centimeters is given as an output.

### elec-energy-01.iwp

A proton moves initially to the left in a uniform electric field. Assuming no forces are acting other than the electric force, what is the initial velocity of the proton? The position of the proton in centimeters is given as an output.

### elec-energy-02.iwp

A proton moves initially to the left under the influence of both a uniform electric field and an external force pointed to the left. What is the initial velocity of the proton? The position of the proton in centimeters is given as an output.

### em-ratio-1.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V1. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils with current. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### elec-energy-02.iwp

A proton moves initially to the left under the influence of both a uniform electric field and an external force pointed to the left. What is the initial velocity of the proton? The position of the proton in centimeters is given as an output.

### em-ratio-1.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V1. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils with current. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### em-ratio-1b.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1 (not shown). At the origin, the electron enters a uniform electric field. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V1.

### em-ratio-1.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V1. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils with current. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### em-ratio-1b.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1 (not shown). At the origin, the electron enters a uniform electric field. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V1.

### em-ratio-1c.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1 (not shown). At the origin, the electron enters a uniform magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils. Within the area encircled by the coils, the electron follows a circular path.

### em-ratio-1b.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1 (not shown). At the origin, the electron enters a uniform electric field. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V1.

### em-ratio-1c.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1 (not shown). At the origin, the electron enters a uniform magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils. Within the area encircled by the coils, the electron follows a circular path.

### em-ratio-1d.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1 (not shown). At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V2. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils.

### em-ratio-1c.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1 (not shown). At the origin, the electron enters a uniform magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils. Within the area encircled by the coils, the electron follows a circular path.

### em-ratio-1d.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1 (not shown). At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V2. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils.

### em-ratio-2.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest and enters an electric field produced by parallel plates with a constant potential difference across them.

### em-ratio-1d.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1 (not shown). At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V2. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils.

### em-ratio-2.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest and enters an electric field produced by parallel plates with a constant potential difference across them.

### em-ratio-2b.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. Near the origin, the electron enters a uniform magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen). The magnitude of the magnetic field may be adjusted by changing the current in the coils.

### em-ratio-2.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest and enters an electric field produced by parallel plates with a constant potential difference across them.

### em-ratio-2b.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. Near the origin, the electron enters a uniform magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen). The magnitude of the magnetic field may be adjusted by changing the current in the coils.

### em-ratio-2c.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V2. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity blue = acceleration

### em-ratio-2b.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. Near the origin, the electron enters a uniform magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen). The magnitude of the magnetic field may be adjusted by changing the current in the coils.

### em-ratio-2c.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V2. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity blue = acceleration

### em-ratio-2d.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest and enters an electric field produced by parallel plates with a constant potential difference across them.

### em-ratio-2c.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V2. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity blue = acceleration

### em-ratio-2d.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest and enters an electric field produced by parallel plates with a constant potential difference across them.

### em-ratio-3.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### em-ratio-2d.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest and enters an electric field produced by parallel plates with a constant potential difference across them.

### em-ratio-3.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### em-ratio-example.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### em-ratio-3.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### em-ratio-example.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### em-ratio.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference of V2. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils with current i. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### em-ratio-example.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### em-ratio.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference of V2. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils with current i. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### em_path_2.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio. Note that the time step is 50 ns. It doesnt display to the right.

### em-ratio.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference of V2. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils with current i. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### em_path_2.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio. Note that the time step is 50 ns. It doesnt display to the right.

### em_path_3.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio. Note that the time step is 50 ns. It doesnt display to the right.

### em_path_2.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio. Note that the time step is 50 ns. It doesnt display to the right.

### em_path_3.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio. Note that the time step is 50 ns. It doesnt display to the right.

### em_path_4.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio.

### em_path_3.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio. Note that the time step is 50 ns. It doesnt display to the right.

### em_path_4.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio.

### emcycloid.iwp

An electron moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen)

### em_path_4.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio.

### emcycloid.iwp

An electron moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen)

### emission-01.iwp

An excited atom emits a photon.

### emcycloid.iwp

An electron moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen)

### emission-01.iwp

An excited atom emits a photon.

### emission-02.iwp

A hydrogen atom at the origin emits a photon (red arrow) and recoils to the left.

### emission-01.iwp

An excited atom emits a photon.

### emission-02.iwp

A hydrogen atom at the origin emits a photon (red arrow) and recoils to the left.

### empath3.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio.

### emission-02.iwp

A hydrogen atom at the origin emits a photon (red arrow) and recoils to the left.

### empath3.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio.

### empath5.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio.

### empath3.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio.

### empath5.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio.

### emtube-2.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a difference of potential. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils (not shown). Vectors: red = velocity blue = acceleration

### empath5.iwp

A charged particle moves under the influence of an electric field oriented along the y-axis and a magnetic field oriented along the z-axis (perpendicular to the screen). Note these sign conventions: Direction of positive E is +y (toward top of screen) Direction of positive B is +z (outward from screen) The sign of the charge is the same as that of the charge/mass ratio.

### emtube-2.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a difference of potential. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils (not shown). Vectors: red = velocity blue = acceleration

### emtube-template-2.iwp

This is a template for a simulation that you are to complete. The simulation is that of electrons in an electron tube. Electron are accelerated horizontally from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electrons enter crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V1. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils.

### emtube-2.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a difference of potential. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils (not shown). Vectors: red = velocity blue = acceleration

### emtube-template-2.iwp

This is a template for a simulation that you are to complete. The simulation is that of electrons in an electron tube. Electron are accelerated horizontally from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electrons enter crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V1. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils.

### emtube.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a difference of potential V. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### emtube-template-2.iwp

This is a template for a simulation that you are to complete. The simulation is that of electrons in an electron tube. Electron are accelerated horizontally from rest under the influence of a potential V1. At the origin, the electrons enter crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V1. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils.

### emtube.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a difference of potential V. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### energy-fall-01.iwp

A ball is tossed upward in the absence of air friction. The situation depicted is for times after the upward push force is no longer acting on the ball. The vector shown represents the velocity of the ball. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial position of the ball. The system is taken to be the ball and the Earth. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### emtube.iwp

An electron is accelerated from rest under the influence of a difference of potential V. At the origin, the electron enters crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electric field is oriented in the -y direction and is produced by parallel plates with a potential difference equal to V. The magnetic field is oriented in the -z direction (into screen) and is produced by Helmholtz coils. Vectors: red = velocity green = magnetic force black = electric force blue = acceleration

### energy-fall-01.iwp

A ball is tossed upward in the absence of air friction. The situation depicted is for times after the upward push force is no longer acting on the ball. The vector shown represents the velocity of the ball. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial position of the ball. The system is taken to be the ball and the Earth. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-fall-01b.iwp

A ball is released from rest and falls freely. The system includes the ball and the Earth. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is indicated. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars. The sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energies is equal to the energy of the system at all times.

### energy-fall-01.iwp

A ball is tossed upward in the absence of air friction. The situation depicted is for times after the upward push force is no longer acting on the ball. The vector shown represents the velocity of the ball. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial position of the ball. The system is taken to be the ball and the Earth. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-fall-01b.iwp

A ball is released from rest and falls freely. The system includes the ball and the Earth. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is indicated. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars. The sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energies is equal to the energy of the system at all times.

### energy-fall-01c.iwp

A ball is released from rest and falls in the presence of air. The system includes the ball and the Earth. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is indicated. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars. The system energy, which is the sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energies, decreases as a result of the work done by friction on the ball.

### energy-fall-01b.iwp

A ball is released from rest and falls freely. The system includes the ball and the Earth. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is indicated. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars. The sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energies is equal to the energy of the system at all times.

### energy-fall-01c.iwp

A ball is released from rest and falls in the presence of air. The system includes the ball and the Earth. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is indicated. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars. The system energy, which is the sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energies, decreases as a result of the work done by friction on the ball.

### energy-fall-02.iwp

A ball is tossed upward in the absence of air friction. The situation depicted is for times after the upward push force is no longer acting on the ball. The vector shown represents the velocity of the ball. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the highest position of the ball. The system is taken to be the ball and the Earth. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-fall-01c.iwp

A ball is released from rest and falls in the presence of air. The system includes the ball and the Earth. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is indicated. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars. The system energy, which is the sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energies, decreases as a result of the work done by friction on the ball.

### energy-fall-02.iwp

A ball is tossed upward in the absence of air friction. The situation depicted is for times after the upward push force is no longer acting on the ball. The vector shown represents the velocity of the ball. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the highest position of the ball. The system is taken to be the ball and the Earth. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-fall-03.iwp

A block is given an initial velocity upward. The vector shown represents the velocity of the block. After t = 0, the forces acting on the block are gravity and the kinetic friction forces exerted by the rails on the block. Note that the friction force is down--in the direction of gravity--when the block is on the way up. On the way down, the friction force switches directions. Hence, the block experiences different accelerations on the way up and way down. However, these accelerations need not be known in order to do an energy analysis. (Continue reading below.) The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial position of the block. The system is taken to be the ball and the Earth. Friction is an external force that does negative work on the system. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work done by friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars. (The jitter along the E = 0 line is a result of small errors in the way the applet updates position and velocity values used in calculating energies.) The system energy decrease with time as a result of the work done by friction on the system.

### energy-fall-02.iwp

A ball is tossed upward in the absence of air friction. The situation depicted is for times after the upward push force is no longer acting on the ball. The vector shown represents the velocity of the ball. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the highest position of the ball. The system is taken to be the ball and the Earth. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-fall-03.iwp

A block is given an initial velocity upward. The vector shown represents the velocity of the block. After t = 0, the forces acting on the block are gravity and the kinetic friction forces exerted by the rails on the block. Note that the friction force is down--in the direction of gravity--when the block is on the way up. On the way down, the friction force switches directions. Hence, the block experiences different accelerations on the way up and way down. However, these accelerations need not be known in order to do an energy analysis. (Continue reading below.) The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial position of the block. The system is taken to be the ball and the Earth. Friction is an external force that does negative work on the system. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work done by friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars. (The jitter along the E = 0 line is a result of small errors in the way the applet updates position and velocity values used in calculating energies.) The system energy decrease with time as a result of the work done by friction on the system.

### energy-fall-04.iwp

A block is given an initial velocity upward. The vector shown represents the velocity of the ball. After t = 0, the forces acting on the block are gravity and the kinetic friction forces exerted by the rails on the block. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial position of the block. The system is taken to be the ball, the Earth, and the rails. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, thermal energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-fall-03.iwp

A block is given an initial velocity upward. The vector shown represents the velocity of the block. After t = 0, the forces acting on the block are gravity and the kinetic friction forces exerted by the rails on the block. Note that the friction force is down--in the direction of gravity--when the block is on the way up. On the way down, the friction force switches directions. Hence, the block experiences different accelerations on the way up and way down. However, these accelerations need not be known in order to do an energy analysis. (Continue reading below.) The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial position of the block. The system is taken to be the ball and the Earth. Friction is an external force that does negative work on the system. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work done by friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars. (The jitter along the E = 0 line is a result of small errors in the way the applet updates position and velocity values used in calculating energies.) The system energy decrease with time as a result of the work done by friction on the system.

### energy-fall-04.iwp

A block is given an initial velocity upward. The vector shown represents the velocity of the ball. After t = 0, the forces acting on the block are gravity and the kinetic friction forces exerted by the rails on the block. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial position of the block. The system is taken to be the ball, the Earth, and the rails. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, thermal energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-plane-01.iwp

This version is parametric, and is incomplete. Higher versions use Euler's method.

### energy-fall-04.iwp

A block is given an initial velocity upward. The vector shown represents the velocity of the ball. After t = 0, the forces acting on the block are gravity and the kinetic friction forces exerted by the rails on the block. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial position of the block. The system is taken to be the ball, the Earth, and the rails. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, thermal energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-plane-01.iwp

This version is parametric, and is incomplete. Higher versions use Euler's method.

### energy-plane-02.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial vertical position of the block. The system is taken to be the block, the Earth, and the gravitational force. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The external force of kinetic friction does negative work on the block, since the friction force is always opposite the displacement. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work due to friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-plane-01.iwp

This version is parametric, and is incomplete. Higher versions use Euler's method.

### energy-plane-02.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial vertical position of the block. The system is taken to be the block, the Earth, and the gravitational force. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The external force of kinetic friction does negative work on the block, since the friction force is always opposite the displacement. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work due to friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-plane-03.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial vertical position of the block. The system is taken to be the block and the Earth. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The external force of kinetic friction does negative work on the block, since the friction force is always opposite the displacement. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work due to friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-plane-02.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial vertical position of the block. The system is taken to be the block, the Earth, and the gravitational force. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The external force of kinetic friction does negative work on the block, since the friction force is always opposite the displacement. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work due to friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-plane-03.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial vertical position of the block. The system is taken to be the block and the Earth. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The external force of kinetic friction does negative work on the block, since the friction force is always opposite the displacement. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work due to friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-plane-03b.iwp

A block is released from rest on a frictionless plane. The system is taken to be the block and the Earth. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars. The energy of the system is conserved.

### energy-plane-03.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial vertical position of the block. The system is taken to be the block and the Earth. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The external force of kinetic friction does negative work on the block, since the friction force is always opposite the displacement. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work due to friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-plane-03b.iwp

A block is released from rest on a frictionless plane. The system is taken to be the block and the Earth. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars. The energy of the system is conserved.

### energy-plane-04.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial vertical position of the block. The system is taken to be the block, the Earth, and the gravitational force. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The external force of kinetic friction does negative work on the block, since the friction force is always opposite the displacement. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work due to friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-plane-03b.iwp

A block is released from rest on a frictionless plane. The system is taken to be the block and the Earth. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and energy of the system are shown by the vertical, colored bars. The energy of the system is conserved.

### energy-plane-04.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial vertical position of the block. The system is taken to be the block, the Earth, and the gravitational force. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The external force of kinetic friction does negative work on the block, since the friction force is always opposite the displacement. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work due to friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-plane-05.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. This applet shows how the effect of changing the system selected for a conservation of energy analysis. With System = 1, the system includes the block and the Earth. Since there is no work done by external forces, the energy of the system is constant. The sum of kinetic energy of the block and gravitational potential energy of the system remains constant as the block moves. With System = -1, the system includes the block only. Thus, gravity is an external force doing negative work on the system. The energy of the system is just the kinetic energy of the block.

### energy-plane-04.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. The 0 level for gravitational potential energy is taken to be the initial vertical position of the block. The system is taken to be the block, the Earth, and the gravitational force. The external normal force of the plane on the block does no work, since the force and displacement are always perpendicular. The external force of kinetic friction does negative work on the block, since the friction force is always opposite the displacement. The values of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, energy of the system, and work due to friction are shown by the vertical, colored bars.

### energy-plane-05.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. This applet shows how the effect of changing the system selected for a conservation of energy analysis. With System = 1, the system includes the block and the Earth. Since there is no work done by external forces, the energy of the system is constant. The sum of kinetic energy of the block and gravitational potential energy of the system remains constant as the block moves. With System = -1, the system includes the block only. Thus, gravity is an external force doing negative work on the system. The energy of the system is just the kinetic energy of the block.

### energy-pulley-01.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. There is friction between block 1 and the plane. When block 2 is released, the two blocks accelerate. What is the velocity of block 2 just before it reaches the black platform on the floor?

### energy-plane-05.iwp

A block is initially given a push to start it moving up a inclined plane. At t = 0, the push is removed. This applet shows how the effect of changing the system selected for a conservation of energy analysis. With System = 1, the system includes the block and the Earth. Since there is no work done by external forces, the energy of the system is constant. The sum of kinetic energy of the block and gravitational potential energy of the system remains constant as the block moves. With System = -1, the system includes the block only. Thus, gravity is an external force doing negative work on the system. The energy of the system is just the kinetic energy of the block.

### energy-pulley-01.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. There is friction between block 1 and the plane. When block 2 is released, the two blocks accelerate. What is the velocity of block 2 just before it reaches the black platform on the floor?

### energy-pulley-01b.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. There is friction between block 1 and the plane. When block 2 is released, the two blocks accelerate. What is the velocity of block 2 just before it reaches the black platform on the floor?

### energy-pulley-01.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. There is friction between block 1 and the plane. When block 2 is released, the two blocks accelerate. What is the velocity of block 2 just before it reaches the black platform on the floor?

### energy-pulley-01b.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. There is friction between block 1 and the plane. When block 2 is released, the two blocks accelerate. What is the velocity of block 2 just before it reaches the black platform on the floor?

### energy-spring-1.iwp

When you play the animation, the block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The origin is in the center, the direction of +x is to the right, and the grid spacing is 0.02 m. The oscillation is the result of a Hooke's Law force applied by the spring to the block. The heights of the vertical bars shown below the table are proportional to the values of kinetic and elastic potential energy of the block-spring system.

### energy-pulley-01b.iwp

Two blocks are connected by a massless, unstretchable string which passes over a frictionless, massless pulley. There is friction between block 1 and the plane. When block 2 is released, the two blocks accelerate. What is the velocity of block 2 just before it reaches the black platform on the floor?

### energy-spring-1.iwp

When you play the animation, the block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The origin is in the center, the direction of +x is to the right, and the grid spacing is 0.02 m. The oscillation is the result of a Hooke's Law force applied by the spring to the block. The heights of the vertical bars shown below the table are proportional to the values of kinetic and elastic potential energy of the block-spring system.

### energy-spring-1b.iwp

When you play the animation, the block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The origin is in the center and the direction of +x is to the right. The oscillation is the result of a Hooke's Law force applied by the spring to the block. The system is taken to be the block and spring. (Gravitational and normal forces do no work on the block.) Which one of the energy bar diagrams (A,B,C,D) represents how the kinetic energy (blue), elastic potential energy (red), and total system energy (green) change as a function of time?

### energy-spring-1.iwp

When you play the animation, the block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The origin is in the center, the direction of +x is to the right, and the grid spacing is 0.02 m. The oscillation is the result of a Hooke's Law force applied by the spring to the block. The heights of the vertical bars shown below the table are proportional to the values of kinetic and elastic potential energy of the block-spring system.

### energy-spring-1b.iwp

When you play the animation, the block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The origin is in the center and the direction of +x is to the right. The oscillation is the result of a Hooke's Law force applied by the spring to the block. The system is taken to be the block and spring. (Gravitational and normal forces do no work on the block.) Which one of the energy bar diagrams (A,B,C,D) represents how the kinetic energy (blue), elastic potential energy (red), and total system energy (green) change as a function of time?

### energy-spring-1c.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The oscillation is the result of a Hooke's Law force applied by the spring to the block. The system is taken to be the block and the spring. (Gravitational and normal forces do no work on the block.) The bars show how the kinetic energy, elastic potential energy, and energy of the system change with time. The energy of the system is conserved.

### energy-spring-1b.iwp

When you play the animation, the block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The origin is in the center and the direction of +x is to the right. The oscillation is the result of a Hooke's Law force applied by the spring to the block. The system is taken to be the block and spring. (Gravitational and normal forces do no work on the block.) Which one of the energy bar diagrams (A,B,C,D) represents how the kinetic energy (blue), elastic potential energy (red), and total system energy (green) change as a function of time?

### energy-spring-1c.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The oscillation is the result of a Hooke's Law force applied by the spring to the block. The system is taken to be the block and the spring. (Gravitational and normal forces do no work on the block.) The bars show how the kinetic energy, elastic potential energy, and energy of the system change with time. The energy of the system is conserved.

### energy-spring-2.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin. There is kinetic friction between the block and the table. The origin is in the center, the direction of +x is to the right, and the grid spacing is 0.01 m. The heights of the vertical bars shown below the table are proportional to the values of kinetic energy (K), elastic potential energy (Ue), thermal energy (T), and total energy of the system (Esys). The system includes the block, spring, table, spring force, and friction force.

### energy-spring-1c.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The oscillation is the result of a Hooke's Law force applied by the spring to the block. The system is taken to be the block and the spring. (Gravitational and normal forces do no work on the block.) The bars show how the kinetic energy, elastic potential energy, and energy of the system change with time. The energy of the system is conserved.

### energy-spring-2.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin. There is kinetic friction between the block and the table. The origin is in the center, the direction of +x is to the right, and the grid spacing is 0.01 m. The heights of the vertical bars shown below the table are proportional to the values of kinetic energy (K), elastic potential energy (Ue), thermal energy (T), and total energy of the system (Esys). The system includes the block, spring, table, spring force, and friction force.

### energy-spring-2b.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin. There is kinetic friction between the block and the table. The origin is in the center, the direction of +x is to the right, and the grid spacing is 0.01 m. The heights of the vertical bars shown below the table are proportional to the values of kinetic energy (K), elastic potential energy (Ue), thermal energy (T), and total energy of the system (Esys). The system includes the block, spring, table, spring force, and friction force.

### energy-spring-2.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin. There is kinetic friction between the block and the table. The origin is in the center, the direction of +x is to the right, and the grid spacing is 0.01 m. The heights of the vertical bars shown below the table are proportional to the values of kinetic energy (K), elastic potential energy (Ue), thermal energy (T), and total energy of the system (Esys). The system includes the block, spring, table, spring force, and friction force.

### energy-spring-2b.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin. There is kinetic friction between the block and the table. The origin is in the center, the direction of +x is to the right, and the grid spacing is 0.01 m. The heights of the vertical bars shown below the table are proportional to the values of kinetic energy (K), elastic potential energy (Ue), thermal energy (T), and total energy of the system (Esys). The system includes the block, spring, table, spring force, and friction force.

### energy-spring-2c.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The block is already in motion at t = 0. Determine the magnitude of the initial velocity of the block,

### energy-spring-2b.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin. There is kinetic friction between the block and the table. The origin is in the center, the direction of +x is to the right, and the grid spacing is 0.01 m. The heights of the vertical bars shown below the table are proportional to the values of kinetic energy (K), elastic potential energy (Ue), thermal energy (T), and total energy of the system (Esys). The system includes the block, spring, table, spring force, and friction force.

### energy-spring-2c.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The block is already in motion at t = 0. Determine the magnitude of the initial velocity of the block,

### energy-spring-3.iwp

At t = 0, a block attached to a spring is released from rest and oscillates horizontally about the origin on a table. There is friction between the block and the table. How much work does friction do on the block from t = 0 until the block returns for the first time to its turn around point on the right?

### energy-spring-2c.iwp

A block oscillates horizontally about the origin on a frictionless table. The block is already in motion at t = 0. Determine the magnitude of the initial velocity of the block,

### energy-spring-3.iwp

At t = 0, a block attached to a spring is released from rest and oscillates horizontally about the origin on a table. There is friction between the block and the table. How much work does friction do on the block from t = 0 until the block returns for the first time to its turn around point on the right?

### energy-spring-3b.iwp

At t = 0, a block attached to a spring is released from rest and oscillates horizontally about the origin on a table. There is friction between the block and the table. How much work does friction do on the block from t = 0 until the block comes to a stop?

### energy-spring-3.iwp

At t = 0, a block attached to a spring is released from rest and oscillates horizontally about the origin on a table. There is friction between the block and the table. How much work does friction do on the block from t = 0 until the block returns for the first time to its turn around point on the right?

### energy-spring-3b.iwp

At t = 0, a block attached to a spring is released from rest and oscillates horizontally about the origin on a table. There is friction between the block and the table. How much work does friction do on the block from t = 0 until the block comes to a stop?

### energy-vertspring-01.iwp

A block is suspended from a fixed support by a rubber band. When held in place by the green stick, the rubber band is completely relaxed. When the green stick is pulled away, the block oscillates vertically under the action of gravity and a Hooke's Law type spring force. The red line (marked y = 0) is the position at which both gravitational and elastic potential energy are taken to be 0. The system includes the block, Earth, and band. No external forces act on the system. (Scroll down.) When you play the animation, 4 sets of blue, red, and green bars labeled A-D will appear. One of these sets represents the kinetic (blue), elastic potential (red), and gravitational potential (green) energies. Which set is the correct one? (Note the indicator of positive, 0, and negative energy shown to middle left.)

### energy-spring-3b.iwp

At t = 0, a block attached to a spring is released from rest and oscillates horizontally about the origin on a table. There is friction between the block and the table. How much work does friction do on the block from t = 0 until the block comes to a stop?

### energy-vertspring-01.iwp

A block is suspended from a fixed support by a rubber band. When held in place by the green stick, the rubber band is completely relaxed. When the green stick is pulled away, the block oscillates vertically under the action of gravity and a Hooke's Law type spring force. The red line (marked y = 0) is the position at which both gravitational and elastic potential energy are taken to be 0. The system includes the block, Earth, and band. No external forces act on the system. (Scroll down.) When you play the animation, 4 sets of blue, red, and green bars labeled A-D will appear. One of these sets represents the kinetic (blue), elastic potential (red), and gravitational potential (green) energies. Which set is the correct one? (Note the indicator of positive, 0, and negative energy shown to middle left.)

### energy-vertspring-01v4.iwp

A block is suspended from a fixed support by a rubber band. When held in place by the green stick, the rubber band is completely relaxed. When the green stick is pulled away, the block oscillates vertically under the action of gravity and a Hooke's Law type spring force. The red line (marked y = 0) is the position at which both gravitational and elastic potential energy are taken to be 0. The system includes the block, Earth, band, gravity, and spring force. No external forces act on the system. When you play the animation, 4 sets of blue, red, and green bars labeled A-D will appear. One of these sets represents the kinetic (blue), elastic potential (red), and gravitational potential (green) energies. Which set is the correct one? (Note the indicator of positive, 0, and negative energy shown to middle left.)

### energy-vertspring-01.iwp

A block is suspended from a fixed support by a rubber band. When held in place by the green stick, the rubber band is completely relaxed. When the green stick is pulled away, the block oscillates vertically under the action of gravity and a Hooke's Law type spring force. The red line (marked y = 0) is the position at which both gravitational and elastic potential energy are taken to be 0. The system includes the block, Earth, and band. No external forces act on the system. (Scroll down.) When you play the animation, 4 sets of blue, red, and green bars labeled A-D will appear. One of these sets represents the kinetic (blue), elastic potential (red), and gravitational potential (green) energies. Which set is the correct one? (Note the indicator of positive, 0, and negative energy shown to middle left.)

### energy-vertspring-01v4.iwp

A block is suspended from a fixed support by a rubber band. When held in place by the green stick, the rubber band is completely relaxed. When the green stick is pulled away, the block oscillates vertically under the action of gravity and a Hooke's Law type spring force. The red line (marked y = 0) is the position at which both gravitational and elastic potential energy are taken to be 0. The system includes the block, Earth, band, gravity, and spring force. No external forces act on the system. When you play the animation, 4 sets of blue, red, and green bars labeled A-D will appear. One of these sets represents the kinetic (blue), elastic potential (red), and gravitational potential (green) energies. Which set is the correct one? (Note the indicator of positive, 0, and negative energy shown to middle left.)

### epotential-01.iwp

A charged particle enters a uniform electric field at (-10 cm,0). The electric field is produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. For easy visual identification, positive charges show as red and negative charges as blue. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. This will also reverse the colors of the plates. The red plate is always at higher potential than the blue plate. The bar graphs in the yellow window show the electrical potential energy and the work done by the electric field on the particle as it moves.

### energy-vertspring-01v4.iwp

A block is suspended from a fixed support by a rubber band. When held in place by the green stick, the rubber band is completely relaxed. When the green stick is pulled away, the block oscillates vertically under the action of gravity and a Hooke's Law type spring force. The red line (marked y = 0) is the position at which both gravitational and elastic potential energy are taken to be 0. The system includes the block, Earth, band, gravity, and spring force. No external forces act on the system. When you play the animation, 4 sets of blue, red, and green bars labeled A-D will appear. One of these sets represents the kinetic (blue), elastic potential (red), and gravitational potential (green) energies. Which set is the correct one? (Note the indicator of positive, 0, and negative energy shown to middle left.)

### epotential-01.iwp

A charged particle enters a uniform electric field at (-10 cm,0). The electric field is produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. For easy visual identification, positive charges show as red and negative charges as blue. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. This will also reverse the colors of the plates. The red plate is always at higher potential than the blue plate. The bar graphs in the yellow window show the electrical potential energy and the work done by the electric field on the particle as it moves.

### epotential-01b.iwp

At t = 0 , a charged particle is released in a uniform electric field at the given position. The electric field is produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines and the equipotentials by the gray lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. For easy visual identification, positive charges show as red and negative charges as blue. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. This will also reverse the colors of the plates. The red plate is always at higher potential than the blue plate. The potential at the current position of the particle is shown as an output. The bar graphs in the yellow window show the electrical potential energy and the work done by the electric field on the particle as it moves.

### epotential-01.iwp

A charged particle enters a uniform electric field at (-10 cm,0). The electric field is produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. For easy visual identification, positive charges show as red and negative charges as blue. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. This will also reverse the colors of the plates. The red plate is always at higher potential than the blue plate. The bar graphs in the yellow window show the electrical potential energy and the work done by the electric field on the particle as it moves.

### epotential-01b.iwp

At t = 0 , a charged particle is released in a uniform electric field at the given position. The electric field is produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines and the equipotentials by the gray lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. For easy visual identification, positive charges show as red and negative charges as blue. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. This will also reverse the colors of the plates. The red plate is always at higher potential than the blue plate. The potential at the current position of the particle is shown as an output. The bar graphs in the yellow window show the electrical potential energy and the work done by the electric field on the particle as it moves.

### epotential-01c.iwp

At t = 0 , a charged particle is released in a uniform electric field at the given position. The electric field is produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines and the equipotentials by the gray lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. The potential at the current position of the particle is shown as an output. The bar graphs in the yellow window show the electrical potential energy and the work done by the electric field on the particle as it moves.

### epotential-01b.iwp

At t = 0 , a charged particle is released in a uniform electric field at the given position. The electric field is produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines and the equipotentials by the gray lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. For easy visual identification, positive charges show as red and negative charges as blue. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. This will also reverse the colors of the plates. The red plate is always at higher potential than the blue plate. The potential at the current position of the particle is shown as an output. The bar graphs in the yellow window show the electrical potential energy and the work done by the electric field on the particle as it moves.

### epotential-01c.iwp

At t = 0 , a charged particle is released in a uniform electric field at the given position. The electric field is produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines and the equipotentials by the gray lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. The potential at the current position of the particle is shown as an output. The bar graphs in the yellow window show the electrical potential energy and the work done by the electric field on the particle as it moves.

### epotential-02.iwp

A charged particle moves in a uniform electric field produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. The initial position and velocity of the charge may be selected. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. For easy visual identification, positive charges show as red and negative charges as blue. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. This will also reverse the colors of the plates. The red plate is always at higher potential than the blue plate.

### epotential-01c.iwp

At t = 0 , a charged particle is released in a uniform electric field at the given position. The electric field is produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines and the equipotentials by the gray lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. The potential at the current position of the particle is shown as an output. The bar graphs in the yellow window show the electrical potential energy and the work done by the electric field on the particle as it moves.

### epotential-02.iwp

A charged particle moves in a uniform electric field produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. The initial position and velocity of the charge may be selected. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. For easy visual identification, positive charges show as red and negative charges as blue. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. This will also reverse the colors of the plates. The red plate is always at higher potential than the blue plate.

### epotential-02a.iwp

A negative (blue) and a positive (red) particle are accelerated under the action of a uniform electric field. The masses and charges of the particles are given as outputs. How do the magnitudes of the electric forces on the particles compare? How do the accelerations of the particles compare? How do the electric potential energy changes of the particles in moving through the same distance compare? How does the work done by the electric field on the particles compare? Do your answers above depend on the potential difference between the plates?

### epotential-02.iwp

A charged particle moves in a uniform electric field produced by 2 charged plates on opposite sides of the screen, 20 cm apart. The electric field is represented by the green lines. The direction of the electric force on the particle is indicated. The initial position and velocity of the charge may be selected. Charge in units of e (1 e = 1.6E-19 C) is given as an input. Mass in units of u (1 u = 1.66E-27 kg) is given as an output. For easy visual identification, positive charges show as red and negative charges as blue. The potential difference may be reversed by making the potential of the left plate negative. This will also reverse the colors of the plates. The red plate is always at higher potential than the blue plate.

### epotential-02a.iwp

A negative (blue) and a positive (red) particle are accelerated under the action of a uniform electric field. The masses and charges of the particles are given as outputs. How do the magnitudes of the electric forces on the particles compare? How do the accelerations of the particles compare? How do the electric potential energy changes of the particles in moving through the same distance compare? How does the work done by the electric field on the particles compare? Do your answers above depend on the potential difference between the plates?

### epotential-02b.iwp

An electron (blue) and a proton (red) are accelerated under the action of a uniform electric field. Why do the particles experience the same change in electric potential energy in moving through the same distance?

### epotential-02a.iwp

A negative (blue) and a positive (red) particle are accelerated under the action of a uniform electric field. The masses and charges of the particles are given as outputs. How do the magnitudes of the electric forces on the particles compare? How do the accelerations of the particles compare? How do the electric potential energy changes of the particles in moving through the same distance compare? How does the work done by the electric field on the particles compare? Do your answers above depend on the potential difference between the plates?

### epotential-02b.iwp

An electron (blue) and a proton (red) are accelerated under the action of a uniform electric field. Why do the particles experience the same change in electric potential energy in moving through the same distance?

### epotential-02c.iwp

What initial velocity must the proton at the right plate have in order to reach the left plate with a velocity of 0?

### epotential-02b.iwp

An electron (blue) and a proton (red) are accelerated under the action of a uniform electric field. Why do the particles experience the same change in electric potential energy in moving through the same distance?

### epotential-02c.iwp

What initial velocity must the proton at the right plate have in order to reach the left plate with a velocity of 0?

### epotential-02c2.iwp

What initial velocity must the proton at the right plate have in order to reach the left plate with a velocity of 0?

### epotential-02c.iwp

What initial velocity must the proton at the right plate have in order to reach the left plate with a velocity of 0?

### epotential-02c2.iwp

What initial velocity must the proton at the right plate have in order to reach the left plate with a velocity of 0?

### epotential-02d.iwp

A charged particle is acted on by two forces: 1) the force of the electric field set up between the plates, and 2) an external force. The position and velocity of the charge are given as outputs. Determine the direction and magnitude of the external force.

### epotential-02c2.iwp

What initial velocity must the proton at the right plate have in order to reach the left plate with a velocity of 0?

### epotential-02d.iwp

A charged particle is acted on by two forces: 1) the force of the electric field set up between the plates, and 2) an external force. The position and velocity of the charge are given as outputs. Determine the direction and magnitude of the external force.

### epotential-02e.iwp

A charged particle enters a uniform electric field at the bottom of the screen.

### epotential-02d.iwp

A charged particle is acted on by two forces: 1) the force of the electric field set up between the plates, and 2) an external force. The position and velocity of the charge are given as outputs. Determine the direction and magnitude of the external force.

### epotential-02e.iwp

A charged particle enters a uniform electric field at the bottom of the screen.

### epotential-02f.iwp

A positive charge is initially moving to the left. How can you tell that there must be an external force acting on the particle?

### epotential-02e.iwp

A charged particle enters a uniform electric field at the bottom of the screen.

### epotential-02f.iwp

A positive charge is initially moving to the left. How can you tell that there must be an external force acting on the particle?

### epotential-02g.iwp

A positively-charged particle is acted on by two forces: 1) the force of the electric field set up between the plates, and 2) an external force. The position and velocity of the charge are given as outputs.

### epotential-02f.iwp

A positive charge is initially moving to the left. How can you tell that there must be an external force acting on the particle?

### epotential-02g.iwp

A positively-charged particle is acted on by two forces: 1) the force of the electric field set up between the plates, and 2) an external force. The position and velocity of the charge are given as outputs.

### epotential-02h.iwp

A charged particle, initially moving, enters a uniform electric field at upper right. The only force acting on the particle when in the field is the electric force of the field. Determine each of the following. Begin by writing the formula that you will use. Then show your substitutions and give the final result. a. Magnitude of the electric field b. Force diagram for the charged particle when in the field c. Magnitude and direction of the particle's acceleration d. Horizontal displacement of the particle from the time when it enters the field at y = 10.0 cm until the x-component of its velocity is 0. e. The difference of potential experienced by the particle between the same two positions as in part d. f. Change in the particle's electric potential energy between the same two positions as in part d. g. Change in the particle's kinetic energy between the same two positions as in part d. h. Work done by the electric field on the particle between the same two positions as in part d.

### epotential-02g.iwp

A positively-charged particle is acted on by two forces: 1) the force of the electric field set up between the plates, and 2) an external force. The position and velocity of the charge are given as outputs.

### epotential-02h.iwp

A charged particle, initially moving, enters a uniform electric field at upper right. The only force acting on the particle when in the field is the electric force of the field. Determine each of the following. Begin by writing the formula that you will use. Then show your substitutions and give the final result. a. Magnitude of the electric field b. Force diagram for the charged particle when in the field c. Magnitude and direction of the particle's acceleration d. Horizontal displacement of the particle from the time when it enters the field at y = 10.0 cm until the x-component of its velocity is 0. e. The difference of potential experienced by the particle between the same two positions as in part d. f. Change in the particle's electric potential energy between the same two positions as in part d. g. Change in the particle's kinetic energy between the same two positions as in part d. h. Work done by the electric field on the particle between the same two positions as in part d.

### epotential-02i.iwp

A negative (blue) and a positive (red) particle are accelerated under the action of a uniform electric field produced by charged plates. The potentials and positions of the plates are shown. The charges and masses of the particles are given in units of the elementary charge e and the mass unit u respectively.

### epotential-02h.iwp

A charged particle, initially moving, enters a uniform electric field at upper right. The only force acting on the particle when in the field is the electric force of the field. Determine each of the following. Begin by writing the formula that you will use. Then show your substitutions and give the final result. a. Magnitude of the electric field b. Force diagram for the charged particle when in the field c. Magnitude and direction of the particle's acceleration d. Horizontal displacement of the particle from the time when it enters the field at y = 10.0 cm until the x-component of its velocity is 0. e. The difference of potential experienced by the particle between the same two positions as in part d. f. Change in the particle's electric potential energy between the same two positions as in part d. g. Change in the particle's kinetic energy between the same two positions as in part d. h. Work done by the electric field on the particle between the same two positions as in part d.

### epotential-02i.iwp

A negative (blue) and a positive (red) particle are accelerated under the action of a uniform electric field produced by charged plates. The potentials and positions of the plates are shown. The charges and masses of the particles are given in units of the elementary charge e and the mass unit u respectively.

### epotential-02j.iwp

A charged particle is acted on by two forces: 1) the force of the electric field set up between the plates, and 2) an external force. The position and velocity of the charge as well as the potential as a function of position are given as outputs. Determine the direction and magnitude of the external force.

### epotential-02i.iwp

A negative (blue) and a positive (red) particle are accelerated under the action of a uniform electric field produced by charged plates. The potentials and positions of the plates are shown. The charges and masses of the particles are given in units of the elementary charge e and the mass unit u respectively.

### epotential-02j.iwp

A charged particle is acted on by two forces: 1) the force of the electric field set up between the plates, and 2) an external force. The position and velocity of the charge as well as the potential as a function of position are given as outputs. Determine the direction and magnitude of the external force.

### epotential-02j.iwp

A charged particle is acted on by two forces: 1) the force of the electric field set up between the plates, and 2) an external force. The position and velocity of the charge as well as the potential as a function of position are given as outputs. Determine the direction and magnitude of the external force.

### equi-torques-02.iwp

A beam is held horizontal by a string attached to a wall and by an axle about which the beam is free to rotate. The red line is the moment arm of the tension force about the axis. Since the axis is chosen to be the point at which Fh and Fv act, those forces exert no torque about the axis. Thus, only tension and weight play a part in the net torque equation. Step through the applet to see the result of changing the direction of the tension force while the magnitude of the tension stays constant. What are the magnitudes of the four forces acting on the beam? Prove that the string length for which Fv = 0 is twice the length of the beam.

### equi-torques-02.iwp

A beam is held horizontal by a string attached to a wall and by an axle about which the beam is free to rotate. The red line is the moment arm of the tension force about the axis. Since the axis is chosen to be the point at which Fh and Fv act, those forces exert no torque about the axis. Thus, only tension and weight play a part in the net torque equation. Step through the applet to see the result of changing the direction of the tension force while the magnitude of the tension stays constant. What are the magnitudes of the four forces acting on the beam? Prove that the string length for which Fv = 0 is twice the length of the beam.

### equi-torques-03.iwp

A massless rod is held vertical by a string attached to the floor and an applied force acting to the right at the center of the rod. The bottom of the rod is fixed to the floor by a frictionless axle. The red lines are the moment arms of the tension and applied forces about the axis. Since the axis is chosen to be the point at which Fh and Fv act, those forces exert no torque about the axis. Thus, only tension and the applied force play a part in the net torque equation. Step through the applet to see the result of changing the magnitude of the applied force.

### equi-torques-02.iwp

A beam is held horizontal by a string attached to a wall and by an axle about which the beam is free to rotate. The red line is the moment arm of the tension force about the axis. Since the axis is chosen to be the point at which Fh and Fv act, those forces exert no torque about the axis. Thus, only tension and weight play a part in the net torque equation. Step through the applet to see the result of changing the direction of the tension force while the magnitude of the tension stays constant. What are the magnitudes of the four forces acting on the beam? Prove that the string length for which Fv = 0 is twice the length of the beam.

### equi-torques-03.iwp

A massless rod is held vertical by a string attached to the floor and an applied force acting to the right at the center of the rod. The bottom of the rod is fixed to the floor by a frictionless axle. The red lines are the moment arms of the tension and applied forces about the axis. Since the axis is chosen to be the point at which Fh and Fv act, those forces exert no torque about the axis. Thus, only tension and the applied force play a part in the net torque equation. Step through the applet to see the result of changing the magnitude of the applied force.

### equiforce-03.iwp

Three forces in equilibrium are added tip-to-tail.

### equi-torques-03.iwp

A massless rod is held vertical by a string attached to the floor and an applied force acting to the right at the center of the rod. The bottom of the rod is fixed to the floor by a frictionless axle. The red lines are the moment arms of the tension and applied forces about the axis. Since the axis is chosen to be the point at which Fh and Fv act, those forces exert no torque about the axis. Thus, only tension and the applied force play a part in the net torque equation. Step through the applet to see the result of changing the magnitude of the applied force.

### equiforce-03.iwp

Three forces in equilibrium are added tip-to-tail.

### equilibrium-01.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. What are the magnitudes and directions of the forces on the ball?

### equiforce-03.iwp

Three forces in equilibrium are added tip-to-tail.

### equilibrium-01.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. What are the magnitudes and directions of the forces on the ball?

### equilibrium-01b.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces in the two wires are given. Determine the mass of the ball.

### equilibrium-01.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. What are the magnitudes and directions of the forces on the ball?

### equilibrium-01b.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces in the two wires are given. Determine the mass of the ball.

### equilibrium-02.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces and weight are shown. Step through the animation using the >> button to see how the forces change for different vertical positions of the ball.

### equilibrium-01b.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces in the two wires are given. Determine the mass of the ball.

### equilibrium-02.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces and weight are shown. Step through the animation using the >> button to see how the forces change for different vertical positions of the ball.

### equilibrium-03.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces and weight are shown. Step through the animation using the >> button to see how the forces change for different horizontal positions of the ball.

### equilibrium-02.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces and weight are shown. Step through the animation using the >> button to see how the forces change for different vertical positions of the ball.

### equilibrium-03.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces and weight are shown. Step through the animation using the >> button to see how the forces change for different horizontal positions of the ball.

### equilibrium-03b.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces and weight are shown. Step through the animation using the >> button to see how the forces change for different horizontal positions of the ball.

### equilibrium-03.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces and weight are shown. Step through the animation using the >> button to see how the forces change for different horizontal positions of the ball.

### equilibrium-03b.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces and weight are shown. Step through the animation using the >> button to see how the forces change for different horizontal positions of the ball.

### euler.iwp

Test_1.iwp sample xml file! Shoot the Ball off of the mountain onto the Target. YEEHAW!

### equilibrium-03b.iwp

A ball is suspended by strong wires from two posts. The tension forces and weight are shown. Step through the animation using the >> button to see how the forces change for different horizontal positions of the ball.

### euler.iwp

Test_1.iwp sample xml file! Shoot the Ball off of the mountain onto the Target. YEEHAW!

### euler.iwp

Test_1.iwp sample xml file! Shoot the Ball off of the mountain onto the Target. YEEHAW!

### fallcompare-simulation.iwp

The green ball falls in a vacuum, while the red ball experiences a drag force from the fluid in which it falls. The acceleration of the red ball is a = -g + kv², where g = 9.8 N/kg, v is the speed of the ball, and k is a coefficient (which we term the drag factor) that depends on characteristics of the ball and the fluid. You may change the value of k to see how that influences the red ball. The vertical separation of the two balls is displayed in the list of outputs.

### fallcompare-simulation.iwp

The green ball falls in a vacuum, while the red ball experiences a drag force from the fluid in which it falls. The acceleration of the red ball is a = -g + kv², where g = 9.8 N/kg, v is the speed of the ball, and k is a coefficient (which we term the drag factor) that depends on characteristics of the ball and the fluid. You may change the value of k to see how that influences the red ball. The vertical separation of the two balls is displayed in the list of outputs.

### fallcompare-template.iwp

Simulation of two objects falling from rest in a gravitational field. They experience air drag proportional to the square of the speed. The vertical acceleration is given by: a = -g+kv², where k is termed the drag factor. The objects may be assigned different drag factors. The green ball is A; the red ball B. The vertical separation of the balls at any time is provided as one of the outputs.

### fallcompare-simulation.iwp

The green ball falls in a vacuum, while the red ball experiences a drag force from the fluid in which it falls. The acceleration of the red ball is a = -g + kv², where g = 9.8 N/kg, v is the speed of the ball, and k is a coefficient (which we term the drag factor) that depends on characteristics of the ball and the fluid. You may change the value of k to see how that influences the red ball. The vertical separation of the two balls is displayed in the list of outputs.

### fallcompare-template.iwp

Simulation of two objects falling from rest in a gravitational field. They experience air drag proportional to the square of the speed. The vertical acceleration is given by: a = -g+kv², where k is termed the drag factor. The objects may be assigned different drag factors. The green ball is A; the red ball B. The vertical separation of the balls at any time is provided as one of the outputs.

### fallfree02.iwp

Play the animation to see a ball falling freely in the gravitational field of an unknown planet. (Be patient for the ball to appear.) Take measurements from the graph to determine the acceleration and initial velocity of the ball.

### fallcompare-template.iwp

Simulation of two objects falling from rest in a gravitational field. They experience air drag proportional to the square of the speed. The vertical acceleration is given by: a = -g+kv², where k is termed the drag factor. The objects may be assigned different drag factors. The green ball is A; the red ball B. The vertical separation of the balls at any time is provided as one of the outputs.

### fallfree02.iwp

Play the animation to see a ball falling freely in the gravitational field of an unknown planet. (Be patient for the ball to appear.) Take measurements from the graph to determine the acceleration and initial velocity of the ball.

### fallfree1_2.iwp

Simulation of an object projected vertically upward in a uniform gravitational field.

### fallfree02.iwp

Play the animation to see a ball falling freely in the gravitational field of an unknown planet. (Be patient for the ball to appear.) Take measurements from the graph to determine the acceleration and initial velocity of the ball.

### fallfree1_2.iwp

Simulation of an object projected vertically upward in a uniform gravitational field.

### finalke-03.iwp

1. Two dimunitive cars, initially at rest, are subjected at t =0 to an identical and constant force in the +x direction. How do the kinetic energies (see outputs) of the two cars compare after traveling the same distance? Does your answer depend on the masses of the cars? the applied force? the position of the finish line? 2. How do the kinetic energies of the two cars compare after traveling for the same amount of time? Does your answer depend on the masses of the cars? the applied force?

### fallfree1_2.iwp

Simulation of an object projected vertically upward in a uniform gravitational field.

### finalke-03.iwp

1. Two dimunitive cars, initially at rest, are subjected at t =0 to an identical and constant force in the +x direction. How do the kinetic energies (see outputs) of the two cars compare after traveling the same distance? Does your answer depend on the masses of the cars? the applied force? the position of the finish line? 2. How do the kinetic energies of the two cars compare after traveling for the same amount of time? Does your answer depend on the masses of the cars? the applied force?

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-01.iwp

Water drains from a tank through a spout near the bottom. Determine the maximum vertical height above the ground reached and the maximum horizontal distance from the right side of the tank to the ground traveled by the stream.

### finalke-03.iwp

1. Two dimunitive cars, initially at rest, are subjected at t =0 to an identical and constant force in the +x direction. How do the kinetic energies (see outputs) of the two cars compare after traveling the same distance? Does your answer depend on the masses of the cars? the applied force? the position of the finish line? 2. How do the kinetic energies of the two cars compare after traveling for the same amount of time? Does your answer depend on the masses of the cars? the applied force?

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-01.iwp

Water drains from a tank through a spout near the bottom. Determine the maximum vertical height above the ground reached and the maximum horizontal distance from the right side of the tank to the ground traveled by the stream.

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-02.iwp

Water drains from a tank through two spouts in the side.

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-01.iwp

Water drains from a tank through a spout near the bottom. Determine the maximum vertical height above the ground reached and the maximum horizontal distance from the right side of the tank to the ground traveled by the stream.

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-02.iwp

Water drains from a tank through two spouts in the side.

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-03.iwp

Water drains from a tank through a spout in the side. Determine the initial height of the water in the tank above ground level.

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-02.iwp

Water drains from a tank through two spouts in the side.

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-03.iwp

Water drains from a tank through a spout in the side. Determine the initial height of the water in the tank above ground level.

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-03b.iwp

Water drains from a tank through a spout in the side. Enter a value of 0 to 100 for the Randomizer. Determine the height of the spout and the initial height of the water in the tank above ground level.

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-03.iwp

Water drains from a tank through a spout in the side. Determine the initial height of the water in the tank above ground level.

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-03b.iwp

Water drains from a tank through a spout in the side. Enter a value of 0 to 100 for the Randomizer. Determine the height of the spout and the initial height of the water in the tank above ground level.

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-01.iwp

Documentation for teacher: The initial velocity is fixed at 20 m/s in order that the vectors get all the way across the screen. This value is used in calculating the pressure difference. The climber variable is what makes the vectors cycle. It's set to cycle 7 or 8 times, so if the stop time is extended, the vectors won't cycle.

### fluid-dynamics-torricelli-03b.iwp

Water drains from a tank through a spout in the side. Enter a value of 0 to 100 for the Randomizer. Determine the height of the spout and the initial height of the water in the tank above ground level.

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-01.iwp

Documentation for teacher: The initial velocity is fixed at 20 m/s in order that the vectors get all the way across the screen. This value is used in calculating the pressure difference. The climber variable is what makes the vectors cycle. It's set to cycle 7 or 8 times, so if the stop time is extended, the vectors won't cycle.

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-01b.iwp

Water flows in a cylindrical pipe that changes diameter. What is the velocity of the fluid on the right side of the pipe and what is the pressure difference between the left and right sides?

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-01.iwp

Documentation for teacher: The initial velocity is fixed at 20 m/s in order that the vectors get all the way across the screen. This value is used in calculating the pressure difference. The climber variable is what makes the vectors cycle. It's set to cycle 7 or 8 times, so if the stop time is extended, the vectors won't cycle.

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-01b.iwp

Water flows in a cylindrical pipe that changes diameter. What is the velocity of the fluid on the right side of the pipe and what is the pressure difference between the left and right sides?

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-01c.iwp

Blood flows in an artery from left to right. The buildup of plaque reduces the diameter of the artery on the right. Determine the speed of blood flow in the constricted artery and the drop in pressure as the blood enters the constricted region.

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-01b.iwp

Water flows in a cylindrical pipe that changes diameter. What is the velocity of the fluid on the right side of the pipe and what is the pressure difference between the left and right sides?

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-01c.iwp

Blood flows in an artery from left to right. The buildup of plaque reduces the diameter of the artery on the right. Determine the speed of blood flow in the constricted artery and the drop in pressure as the blood enters the constricted region.

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-01c.iwp

Blood flows in an artery from left to right. The buildup of plaque reduces the diameter of the artery on the right. Determine the speed of blood flow in the constricted artery and the drop in pressure as the blood enters the constricted region.

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-02b.iwp

Water travels through a pipe on the left and then rises to a higher elevation to flow through a pipe of different diameter on the right. What is the velocity of the water in the higher pipe and what is the difference in pressure between the higher and lower pipes?

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-02b.iwp

Water travels through a pipe on the left and then rises to a higher elevation to flow through a pipe of different diameter on the right. What is the velocity of the water in the higher pipe and what is the difference in pressure between the higher and lower pipes?

### fluid-dynamics-variable-pipe-02b.iwp

Water travels through a pipe on the left and then rises to a higher elevation to flow through a pipe of different diameter on the right. What is the velocity of the water in the higher pipe and what is the difference in pressure between the higher and lower pipes?

### fluid-statics-01.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (blue = weight; brown = tension; green = buoyancy)

### fluid-statics-01.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (blue = weight; brown = tension; green = buoyancy)

### fluid-statics-02.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy)

### fluid-statics-01.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (blue = weight; brown = tension; green = buoyancy)

### fluid-statics-02.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy)

### fluid-statics-03.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) If the block floats, the string will disappear to indicate that no tension force is required to keep the block in equilibrium. The scale factor may be decreased in the event that the vectors extend beyond the boundaries of the window. Unphysical results are obtained when the densities of block and fluid are equal.

### fluid-statics-02.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy)

### fluid-statics-03.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) If the block floats, the string will disappear to indicate that no tension force is required to keep the block in equilibrium. The scale factor may be decreased in the event that the vectors extend beyond the boundaries of the window. Unphysical results are obtained when the densities of block and fluid are equal.

### fluid-statics-04.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) A digital scale provides a readout of the tension force. Unphysical results are obtained when the densities of block and fluid are equal.

### fluid-statics-03.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) If the block floats, the string will disappear to indicate that no tension force is required to keep the block in equilibrium. The scale factor may be decreased in the event that the vectors extend beyond the boundaries of the window. Unphysical results are obtained when the densities of block and fluid are equal.

### fluid-statics-04.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) A digital scale provides a readout of the tension force. Unphysical results are obtained when the densities of block and fluid are equal.

### fluid-statics-04b.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into water. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) A digital scale provides a readout of the tension force.

### fluid-statics-04.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) A digital scale provides a readout of the tension force. Unphysical results are obtained when the densities of block and fluid are equal.

### fluid-statics-04b.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into water. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) A digital scale provides a readout of the tension force.

### fluid-statics-04c.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into water. A digital scale provides a readout of the tension force. Determine the density of the block.

### fluid-statics-04b.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into water. The force diagram shows the forces on the fluid as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) A digital scale provides a readout of the tension force.

### fluid-statics-04c.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into water. A digital scale provides a readout of the tension force. Determine the density of the block.

### fluid-statics-05-with-acceleration.iwp

A beaker of fluid containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. Unphysical results occur when the object sinks or when the piston accelerates downward with greater magnitude than acceleration due to gravity.

### fluid-statics-04c.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into water. A digital scale provides a readout of the tension force. Determine the density of the block.

### fluid-statics-05-with-acceleration.iwp

A beaker of fluid containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. Unphysical results occur when the object sinks or when the piston accelerates downward with greater magnitude than acceleration due to gravity.

### fluid-statics-05.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the block as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) A digital scale attached to the string provides a readout of the tension force. A second digital scale supports the beaker and its contents.

### fluid-statics-05-with-acceleration.iwp

A beaker of fluid containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. Unphysical results occur when the object sinks or when the piston accelerates downward with greater magnitude than acceleration due to gravity.

### fluid-statics-05.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the block as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) A digital scale attached to the string provides a readout of the tension force. A second digital scale supports the beaker and its contents.

### fluid-statics-05b.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. A digital scale attached to the string provides a readout of the tension force. A second digital scale supports the beaker and its contents. What is the reading on the lower scale? (The combined weight of the fluid and beaker is given as an Output.)

### fluid-statics-05.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. The force diagram shows the forces on the block as a function of time. (mg = weight; T = tension; B = buoyancy) A digital scale attached to the string provides a readout of the tension force. A second digital scale supports the beaker and its contents.

### fluid-statics-05b.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. A digital scale attached to the string provides a readout of the tension force. A second digital scale supports the beaker and its contents. What is the reading on the lower scale? (The combined weight of the fluid and beaker is given as an Output.)

### fluid-statics-06.iwp

A beaker of fluid containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. The forces acting on the object are shown in the force diagram. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 to the value selected in the Inputs column. Unphysical results occur when the object sinks or when the piston accelerates downward with magnitude greater than g. In such cases, Correctness of Model will indicate 0. The model may also be incorrect in general. Does it use a modified Archimedes' Principle for an accelerating fluid, namely, that the buoyant force is equal to the mass of displaced fluid x (a+g)?

### fluid-statics-05b.iwp

A block is lowered by a string at constant velocity into a fluid. A digital scale attached to the string provides a readout of the tension force. A second digital scale supports the beaker and its contents. What is the reading on the lower scale? (The combined weight of the fluid and beaker is given as an Output.)

### fluid-statics-06.iwp

A beaker of fluid containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. The forces acting on the object are shown in the force diagram. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 to the value selected in the Inputs column. Unphysical results occur when the object sinks or when the piston accelerates downward with magnitude greater than g. In such cases, Correctness of Model will indicate 0. The model may also be incorrect in general. Does it use a modified Archimedes' Principle for an accelerating fluid, namely, that the buoyant force is equal to the mass of displaced fluid x (a+g)?

### fluid-statics-06b.iwp

A beaker of water containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 to the maximum value given in the Inputs column. The value of the acceleration at any time is given under Outputs.

### fluid-statics-06.iwp

A beaker of fluid containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. The forces acting on the object are shown in the force diagram. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 to the value selected in the Inputs column. Unphysical results occur when the object sinks or when the piston accelerates downward with magnitude greater than g. In such cases, Correctness of Model will indicate 0. The model may also be incorrect in general. Does it use a modified Archimedes' Principle for an accelerating fluid, namely, that the buoyant force is equal to the mass of displaced fluid x (a+g)?

### fluid-statics-06b.iwp

A beaker of water containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 to the maximum value given in the Inputs column. The value of the acceleration at any time is given under Outputs.

### fluid-statics-06c.iwp

A beaker of water containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. The forces acting on the object are shown in the force diagram. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 to the maximum value given in the Inputs column. The value of the acceleration at any time is given under Outputs.

### fluid-statics-06b.iwp

A beaker of water containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 to the maximum value given in the Inputs column. The value of the acceleration at any time is given under Outputs.

### fluid-statics-06c.iwp

A beaker of water containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. The forces acting on the object are shown in the force diagram. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 to the maximum value given in the Inputs column. The value of the acceleration at any time is given under Outputs.

### fluid-statics-06d.iwp

A beaker of water containing a cubical floating object is accelerated by a piston. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 a maximum. The length of a side of the object and the depth of submersion are given as outputs. Determine the value of the acceleration.

### fluid-statics-06c.iwp

A beaker of water containing a floating object is accelerated by a piston. The forces acting on the object are shown in the force diagram. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 to the maximum value given in the Inputs column. The value of the acceleration at any time is given under Outputs.

### fluid-statics-06d.iwp

A beaker of water containing a cubical floating object is accelerated by a piston. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 a maximum. The length of a side of the object and the depth of submersion are given as outputs. Determine the value of the acceleration.

### fluid-statics-07.iwp

An ice cube floats in water. The level of the water is unchanged as the ice melts.

### fluid-statics-06d.iwp

A beaker of water containing a cubical floating object is accelerated by a piston. Initially, the beaker is at rest and the forces are balanced. When the animation is run, the acceleration quickly increases from 0 a maximum. The length of a side of the object and the depth of submersion are given as outputs. Determine the value of the acceleration.

### fluid-statics-07.iwp

An ice cube floats in water. The level of the water is unchanged as the ice melts.

### friction01.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A constant force (for example, from a hand) is applied on the box to the right. The directions of +x and +y are to the right and up. Click Show graph to view graphs of velocity and acceleration vs. time.

### fluid-statics-07.iwp

An ice cube floats in water. The level of the water is unchanged as the ice melts.

### friction01.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A constant force (for example, from a hand) is applied on the box to the right. The directions of +x and +y are to the right and up. Click Show graph to view graphs of velocity and acceleration vs. time.

### friction01b.iwp

A red box slides down a wall. The box is in motion at t = 0. A constant force (for example, from a hand) is applied on the box to the right. The grid spacing is 1 meter. Assume the axis directions shown.

### friction01.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A constant force (for example, from a hand) is applied on the box to the right. The directions of +x and +y are to the right and up. Click Show graph to view graphs of velocity and acceleration vs. time.

### friction01b.iwp

A red box slides down a wall. The box is in motion at t = 0. A constant force (for example, from a hand) is applied on the box to the right. The grid spacing is 1 meter. Assume the axis directions shown.

### friction01c.iwp

A red box slides down a wall. The forces on the box are shown. Try changing the parameters (mass of box, coefficient fo kinetic friction, applied force) to see how that affects the force vectors.

### friction01b.iwp

A red box slides down a wall. The box is in motion at t = 0. A constant force (for example, from a hand) is applied on the box to the right. The grid spacing is 1 meter. Assume the axis directions shown.

### friction01c.iwp

A red box slides down a wall. The forces on the box are shown. Try changing the parameters (mass of box, coefficient fo kinetic friction, applied force) to see how that affects the force vectors.

### friction02.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A constant force (for example, from a hand) is applied on the box to the right. The directions of +x and +y are to the right and up. Click Show graph to view graphs of velocity and acceleration vs. time.

### friction01c.iwp

A red box slides down a wall. The forces on the box are shown. Try changing the parameters (mass of box, coefficient fo kinetic friction, applied force) to see how that affects the force vectors.

### friction02.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A constant force (for example, from a hand) is applied on the box to the right. The directions of +x and +y are to the right and up. Click Show graph to view graphs of velocity and acceleration vs. time.

### friction_static-01.iwp

An object rests on a horizontal surface. A pulling force is applied on the block to the right. As the applet runs, the tension force is increased to the point at which the block begins to slide. What happens to the forces at this point? Note: The Friction force labeled on the animation may be either static or kinetic depending on whether or not the block is moving.

### friction02.iwp

A red box slides along a blue wall. A constant force (for example, from a hand) is applied on the box to the right. The directions of +x and +y are to the right and up. Click Show graph to view graphs of velocity and acceleration vs. time.

### friction_static-01.iwp

An object rests on a horizontal surface. A pulling force is applied on the block to the right. As the applet runs, the tension force is increased to the point at which the block begins to slide. What happens to the forces at this point? Note: The Friction force labeled on the animation may be either static or kinetic depending on whether or not the block is moving.

### function_plot.iwp

The pointer traces out a quadratic function of the form: y = a + bx + cx²

### friction_static-01.iwp

An object rests on a horizontal surface. A pulling force is applied on the block to the right. As the applet runs, the tension force is increased to the point at which the block begins to slide. What happens to the forces at this point? Note: The Friction force labeled on the animation may be either static or kinetic depending on whether or not the block is moving.

### function_plot.iwp

The pointer traces out a quadratic function of the form: y = a + bx + cx²

### functionplot4.iwp

The pointer traces out a function of the form: y = a + bx + cx^2+dx^3+ex^4 to do: fix tangent line integration area forced to trapezoidal shape

### function_plot.iwp

The pointer traces out a quadratic function of the form: y = a + bx + cx²

### functionplot4.iwp

The pointer traces out a function of the form: y = a + bx + cx^2+dx^3+ex^4 to do: fix tangent line integration area forced to trapezoidal shape

### functionplot_2.iwp

The pointer traces out a quadratic function of the form: y = a + bx + cx² to do: make strip trace out area use Euler's method to get first and second integrals of acceleration

### functionplot4.iwp

The pointer traces out a function of the form: y = a + bx + cx^2+dx^3+ex^4 to do: fix tangent line integration area forced to trapezoidal shape

### functionplot_2.iwp

The pointer traces out a quadratic function of the form: y = a + bx + cx² to do: make strip trace out area use Euler's method to get first and second integrals of acceleration

### gas-laws-balloon-01.iwp

A balloon expands as the temperature of the gas inside of it rises. How do the initial and final volumes and pressures compare?

### functionplot_2.iwp

The pointer traces out a quadratic function of the form: y = a + bx + cx² to do: make strip trace out area use Euler's method to get first and second integrals of acceleration

### gas-laws-balloon-01.iwp

A balloon expands as the temperature of the gas inside of it rises. How do the initial and final volumes and pressures compare?

### gas-laws-balloon.iwp

A balloon drifts through the air and expands as the temperature of the gas inside of it rises. The thin gray circle illustrates the original size of the balloon for comparison. The animation fails to represent properly cases in which the initial temperature is greater than the final or less than absolute zero.

### gas-laws-balloon-01.iwp

A balloon expands as the temperature of the gas inside of it rises. How do the initial and final volumes and pressures compare?

### gas-laws-balloon.iwp

A balloon drifts through the air and expands as the temperature of the gas inside of it rises. The thin gray circle illustrates the original size of the balloon for comparison. The animation fails to represent properly cases in which the initial temperature is greater than the final or less than absolute zero.

### gas-laws-balloon.iwp

A balloon drifts through the air and expands as the temperature of the gas inside of it rises. The thin gray circle illustrates the original size of the balloon for comparison. The animation fails to represent properly cases in which the initial temperature is greater than the final or less than absolute zero.

### gas-laws-bubble-01b.iwp

A balloon is released from the bottom of a deep lake where the temperature is always 4 degC and rises to the top, where the pressure is standard atmospheric pressure. Assume that the balloon rises slowly enough that the temperature of the gas inside adjusts to its surroundings. Determine the pressure at the initial depth and the temperature of the air above the lake. The depth of the balloon and its radius are given as Outputs.

### gas-laws-bubble-01b.iwp

A balloon is released from the bottom of a deep lake where the temperature is always 4 degC and rises to the top, where the pressure is standard atmospheric pressure. Assume that the balloon rises slowly enough that the temperature of the gas inside adjusts to its surroundings. Determine the pressure at the initial depth and the temperature of the air above the lake. The depth of the balloon and its radius are given as Outputs.

### gas-laws-bubble-01b.iwp

A balloon is released from the bottom of a deep lake where the temperature is always 4 degC and rises to the top, where the pressure is standard atmospheric pressure. Assume that the balloon rises slowly enough that the temperature of the gas inside adjusts to its surroundings. Determine the pressure at the initial depth and the temperature of the air above the lake. The depth of the balloon and its radius are given as Outputs.

### gas-laws-piston-01.iwp

A vertical piston compresses a gas in a rectangular container. Mode Zero represents an isothermal and isobaric process. Mode One is isobaric and adiabatic. Mode Negative One is isothermal and adiabatic.

### gas-laws-piston-01.iwp

A vertical piston compresses a gas in a rectangular container. Mode Zero represents an isothermal and isobaric process. Mode One is isobaric and adiabatic. Mode Negative One is isothermal and adiabatic.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-01.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses a gas. The blue scale to lower right indicates the pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the cubical gas volume are initially 0.080 m x 0.080 m x 0.28 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-01.iwp

A vertical piston compresses a gas in a rectangular container. Mode Zero represents an isothermal and isobaric process. Mode One is isobaric and adiabatic. Mode Negative One is isothermal and adiabatic.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-01.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses a gas. The blue scale to lower right indicates the pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the cubical gas volume are initially 0.080 m x 0.080 m x 0.28 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-01b.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses a gas. The blue scale to lower right indicates the pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the cubical gas volume are initially 0.080 m x 0.080 m x 0.28 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-01.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses a gas. The blue scale to lower right indicates the pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the cubical gas volume are initially 0.080 m x 0.080 m x 0.28 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-01b.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses a gas. The blue scale to lower right indicates the pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the cubical gas volume are initially 0.080 m x 0.080 m x 0.28 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-01c.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses 0.30 moles of an ideal gas. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the cubical gas volume are initially 0.080 m x 0.080 m x 0.28 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-01b.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses a gas. The blue scale to lower right indicates the pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the cubical gas volume are initially 0.080 m x 0.080 m x 0.28 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-01c.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses 0.30 moles of an ideal gas. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the cubical gas volume are initially 0.080 m x 0.080 m x 0.28 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-02.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses an ideal gas enclosed in a box. The gauge to lower right indicates the absolute pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the gas volume are initially 0.0800 m x 0.0800 m x 0.280 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-01c.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses 0.30 moles of an ideal gas. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the cubical gas volume are initially 0.080 m x 0.080 m x 0.28 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-02.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses an ideal gas enclosed in a box. The gauge to lower right indicates the absolute pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the gas volume are initially 0.0800 m x 0.0800 m x 0.280 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-03.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses 0.100 moles of an ideal gas enclosed in a box. The gauge to lower right indicates the absolute pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions of the gas volume are initially 0.0800 m x 0.0800 m x 0.280 m, where the latter dimension is the dimension perpendicular to the screen.

### gas-laws-piston-v2-02.iwp

A block resting on a piston compresses an ideal gas enclosed in a box. The gauge to lower right indicates the absolute pressure of the gas in atmospheres. A thermometer indicates the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius. The dimensions